Having done vs. After having done


Having driven 100 miles across country, we arrived to find all the hotels had been fully booked.

After having driven 100 miles across country, we arrived to find all the hotels had been fully booked.

There is not much difference in meaning between these two sentences. Generally we use a past participle clause with or without ‘after’ with similar meanings, as here. The use of the both forms emphasises that the first action has been completed before the second action begins. Thus, we could paraphrase these two sentences as follows:
After we had driven 100 miles across country, we stopped and found that all the hotels had been fully booked.

Some people think that the use of ‘after’ before ‘having + past participle’ is redundant, but it is not. Now the question is: Are the two phrases always interchangeable or is there any difference in terms of their meaning or collocate? The google search results testify there are almost equal number of sentences that come with ‘having+ past participle’ and ‘after having+ past participle’.

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 92 in the category of CLAUSES/subordinated is defined as:
a non-finite subordinate clause with ‘after’ + ‘having/being+ ‘-ed’ form, before a main clause, to refer to past time.

Notice that normally, we don’t use participle clauses so much in speech. They are too formal. In informal English, we would probably say: Driving/ After driving 100 miles across country, we stopped and found that all the hotels had been fully booked.


In formal English, participial clauses are very useful. As you will notice from the above examples, when the subject in the participle clause is the same as the participle in the main clause, they help us to say the same thing, but with fewer words.

Here’s another pair of example:
Having taken the wrong turn, Amelia found herself in Bowlero Times Square, not Manhattan.
After having taken the wrong turn, Amelia found herself in Bowlero Times Square, not Manhattan.

However, here the descriptor “After” is generally considered a notation of time. “After having” in the above sentence is a bit redundant, and would generally be considered unnecessary considering the context. Usage with the word after would likely be, “After taking the wrong turn, Amelia found herself …..”

If you go in for “After” in the sentence, it generally implies there were other things that the subject in question had to consider before his work was able to be completed. Hence, if there is a difference, it is a very slight one.

Negative participle clauses
We also use negative participle clauses, in which case ‘not’ normally comes before the past participle:
Not having had anything to eat in the fridge, he was desperate to find something in the kitchen.


Some examples of ‘having + past participle’

Having finished her project, she gossiped with Liam in office canteen.
Having received the parcel, Amelia instantly opened it. (a finished action or an earlier action before another one)
Having finished her homework, Charlotte went to her friend’s house to play.
Having come up to the car, she went back to get her keys.
Having brushed her teeth, she realized she had used her husband’s toothbrush.
Having seen the movie before, she knew what the climax would be.
She knew all the formalities to check in, having travelled abroad several times.


Some more examples of ‘having + past participle’ from the web

Marshall denied having done anything wrong. (The New Yorker)
I should know, having done it.               (The New York Times)
“And having done it made them sicker”. (The New Yorker)
Having done that, take an ocean voyage.(The New Yorker)
I feel slightly grubby having done it.       (Independent)
He may leave having done the opposite. (The Economist)
Let’s enjoy having done it.                     (The New York Times – Arts)
It denied having done so.                      (The Guardian)
Ma denies having done so.                    (The Guardian)
They’re not evil for having done this.     (The New York Times)
“I can’t ever imagine having done this.  (The New York Times – Sports)
Mr. Fisk denied having done so.            (The New York Times)
Having done that, we have a choice.      (The Guardian – Opinion)
Boy immediately regrets having done this. (The New Yorker)


Some examples of ‘after having + past participle’ from the web

But what not many people know is that in the late 1960s, after having done more research on human behavior, Maslow amended his model, and the conventional description of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is actually a highly inaccurate as a description of his later thought.                                                                          (Huffington Post)
Shortly after having done so, Frank isn’t feeling very well.   (The New York Times)
Was it any easier creating a two-hour premiere for the show after having done it last season?                                                                           (The New York Times)
Mr. Williams discovered her in 1991, after having done a research paper on the Amish as a college freshman.                                                             (The New York Times)
“And I liked seeing that Guy, even after having done tons and tons of movies is still scared,” he adds.                                                              (The Guardian – Film)
Jacob, who was 5, was mercifully drifting off to sleep in the back seat after having done his best to pretend he enjoyed watching his first live races.       (The New York Times)
After having done it once, those costs might drop to $40,000 in every later year. Hedge funds command little pity these days.                                 (The Economist)

Who is this? vs. Who is it?


“Who is this?” (on the phone) or “Who’s that?” (at the door) may not be technically wrong, but can sound rude; might be used if you’re suspicious that the person might be someone undesirable. So, it sounds just a bit awkward to say “who is this/ that?” over the phone or at the door.

A native speaker’s normal reply would be “Who is it?” (on the phone or at the door). So, “who is it?” is standard and “who is this / that?” have a sense of confusion and disagreement.


Examples of “Who is this?”

Jane often gets pushy to some rude caller on the line – a person who says “Is that Ms Jane?” (to which Jane replies) and then the caller asks her to confirm her postcode, without introducing themselves. In these circumstances she feels she has a right to jettison politeness, so these people tend to get a “Who’s this?” from her. Here, this ‘this’ indicates a a negative reaction (which can also denote kind of suspicion and rejection).


Examples of “Who is it?”

Who is the person on the other side of a door or end of the telephone line?
“Yes? Who is it?” Jane called out in response to the knocking.
Sarah: “Someone on the phone for you, Jane.” Jane: “Who is it?”


Notice that “Who is it?” is used in a standard way, as a common answer when answering calls. But “Who is this?” uses the less definite ‘this’, which is often employed to refer to something unknown, or to indicate a sense of confusion. For example, if you are accompanying a friend to the market and they ran into one of their friends that you didn’t know you might ask “who’s this?” (though it might sound a little rude).

We also use ‘this’ when we introduce two people: “Jane, this is Emily.” When introducing ourselves on the phone, we say: “Hello, this is Jack. Can I speak to Mrs Wilson, please?”

To do vs. Doing – Infinitive or Gerund


To do vs. Doing – Infinitive or Gerund

The doctor advised him to avoid eating fatty foods.
                          ↓                   ↓          ↓
                  main verb     infinitive  gerund


The above sentence shows how an infinitive or a gerund works in a sentence, but do you know why it is grammatically correct to use “to avoid” and not “avoiding”? Further reading will help you make the right choice.

Infinitives and gerunds are verb forms (neither of them can be a main verb), which can have several positions and functions in a sentence:

Mr. Wilson stopped to smoke. (= Mr. Wilson stopped in order to smoke)
Mr. Wilson stopped smoking. (= Mr. Wilson does not smoke any more)
To speak Mandarin is hard. (= functioning as a subject; used in more formal registers)
Speaking Mandarin is hard. (= functioning as a subject; used in formal and informal registers)
To make the movie a success, the distributors released it in ten languages. (= To show purpose or reason; used as a reduction of in order to)

We use both gerunds and infinitives as objects of a sentence:

She enjoys dancing Or she decided to dance at the annual day function.
Both sentences are correct, but you will notice that one has an infinitive as the object and the other has a gerund as the object. So, some verbs need a gerund and some will need an infinitive. In the above examples, we see that the formula is “enjoy” + [gerund] and “decide” + [infinitive].

What is the difference?

One of the most difficult aspects of using gerunds or infinitives is when we use them after a verb. There is no hard and fast rule or reason as to which one to use where, we could just rather memorize which verbs need a gerund and which need an infinitive.

There are certain verbs that can only be followed by one or the other, and these verbs must be memorized. With practice, you will be able to remember which one is which.

Examples of verbs that need to be followed by an infinitive:

agree: In settling the car accident dispute, she agreed to pay $10,000 in damages.

decide: In the end, they decided to go to the movies.
deserve: The American people deserve to know what the Justice Department is up to.
expect: We expected to see them at the party, but I guess they decided not to come.
hope: I hope to see you soon.
learn: My son learned to drive when he was 16.
need: Grandpa needs to do some shopping on his way home.
offer: He offered to take us to the airport.
plan: She’s not planning to stay here much longer.
promise: The new movie promises to be one of the biggest money-makers of all time.
seem: She seems to know more about him than anyone else.
wait: There were a lot of people waiting to use the washroom.
want: Do you want me to take you to the airport?


There are lots of verbs that need an infinitive after. You will learn them naturally, as you go deeper into the subject. Here are some more verbs that require to be followed by an infinitive include appear, arrange, ask, begin, can’t bear, can’t stand, care, cease, choose, claim, continue, demand, dread, fail, forget, get (be allowed to), happen, hate, hesitate, intend, like, love, manage, neglect, prefer, prepare, pretend, propose, refuse, regret, remember, seem, start, swear, tend, threaten, try, vow, wait, want, wish, would like, yearn, and many more.

Some examples of verbs that need to be followed by a gerund:

admit: Liam admits wasting time and money.

advise: I’d advise waiting until February.
avoid: I try to avoid going shopping on Sundays.
consider (think about): She’s considering selling the car.
deny: The thief denied breaking into her house.
involve: His job involves filing and other general office work.
mention (say something): Grandma mentioned seeing you the other day.
recommend: The doctor recommended jogging as the best all-round exercise.
risk: It’s always a risk starting up a new business.
suggest: I suggested putting the matter to the committee.


Here are some more verbs that take a gerund after themanticipate, appreciate, allow, begin, can’t bear, can’t help, see, stand, cease, complete, continue, defend, delay, despise, discuss, dislike, don’t mind, dread, encourage, enjoy, finish, forget, hate, imagine, keep, like, love, mind, miss, need, neglect, permit, postpone, practice, prefer, propose, quit, recall, recollect, regret, remember, report, require, resent, resist, start, stop, tolerate, try, understand, urge, and many more.

Every vs. All vs. Each


Every = all members of a group considered individually

All = the total number of people or things considered as a group
Each = all members of a group considered individually though we think of them more one by one.


Every, All, Each – Difference

Every‘ and ‘all‘ have similar meanings. We use them to talk about ‘fully of the group’, to refer to the total number of units. However, there is a small difference in the usage of ‘every’ and ‘all’.

Every‘ denotes ‘each individual unit’ of a complete group. ‘All‘ refers to ‘a complete group’: We enjoyed every minute of the movie. After the incident, all students gave a call to their parents.


Each implies all members of a group albeit they are considered more one by one (individually). We use Each to talk about two or more people/things: He had a rose in each hand. Each member of the team was given a warm welcome.

Each and Every generally suggest the same meaning. They refer to all members of a group considered individually. However, Every is closer in meaning to All than Each is:

Every question in the test paper must be read and answered carefully.

Each question in the test paper must be read and answered carefully.

(we use each when we think of them more as one by one. There is lesser emphasis on the individual with Every when comparing it to Each).


All refers to the entire group as a whole. Each refers to the individual members of the group.

He consoled each member of the family who had lost their loved ones in the accident.

(= Consoled Martha, consoled Emily, consoled Jack… etc. until it had been consoled ALL of the family members individually… Yes, there was a lot of repetition)

He consoled all members of the family who had lost their loved ones in the accident.

(= Consoled all family members in one go … consoled once)


All passengers travelling in the car must wear their seat belts.    (refers to the whole group)

Every passenger travelling in the car must wear their seat belts.                 (focuses on each individual member of the whole group)

Each passenger travelling in the car must wear their seat belt.    (implies all members of a group; one by one (individually).                

(We use their instead of his or her to refer back to a singular noun (passenger) because we are referring to both male and female passengers.)


Usage of Every

When we use every + noun as a subject, it uses a singular verb (verb + s): Every elderly person needs love and care.

Every day is a chance to learn something new.

She’s been out every night this week.

Every house overlooking the ocean was worth $3 million. 

Every cannot be used when referring to two things and is not common with small numbers.

Every (one) of the parents is responsible for child care.                       (incorrect)

Each of the parents is responsible for child care.                                (correct) 


Notice that the noun that comes after Every is in singular form:

I attempted every question in the test paper. (NOT every questions)

I believe every word Martha says. (NOT every words)

Everyone‘ can work as a subject on its own: Everyone was excited about the news. 


Some example sentences of Every

Every time I go to Hilo, I get caught in the rain.

She seems to know every single person in the village.

Every prisoner has a guest on Sundays.

The principal wants to ask every student about the incident.

The police looked carefully at every car that drove past.

Every player will receive a certificate at the end of the training.

The students listened carefully to every word the principal said at the last day of the school.

These jewelleries may look like the real thing, but (each and) every one of them is a fake.


Usage of All

All refers to the total number of people or things of a group. They are viewed as a group and not individually. There are at least three things in the group. 

All + noun

We can use All with a plural noun to make a generalization about an entire group of something:

All media called him a liar and a hypocrite. 

We use ‘all’ with plural and uncountable nouns and the verb can be singular or plural. However, ‘everyone’ comes with singular verbs: We all were disappointed. Everyone was disappointed. 


Some example sentences of All

Place all luggage on the weighing machine. (NOT every luggage)

I like all music. (NOT every music)

He had worked all his life in the forests.

The children played in the field all day.

You must have heard it all before.

They have given up all hope of having a child.

Someone’s taken all milk from the refrigerator!

Will all the students please stand over here.

Martha didn’t say a single word all the way back home.


Usage of Each

Each + singular countable noun

We use a singular (countable) noun after the word EachSlow down and enjoy each moment of your life. When the children arrive, you give them each a lollipop. If you live each day as if it were your last, someday you’ll be right. The police are going to ask each of you to give your side of the story. They played the national anthem of each country before the game had begun. 

Notice that after each of, the verb is usually in singular form while in informal English, we will sometimes use a plural verb:

Each of the passengers has a different story to tell. (correct)

Each of the passengers have a different story to tell. (correct, informal)

We cannot use Each with the words Almost or Nearly. Instead, we use Every.

Almost each convict was set free from ADX Florence for good conduct. (incorrect)

Almost every convict was set free from ADX Florence for good conduct. (correct)


Some example sentences of Each

Each of the hospitalaccommodates a ward for poor.

Each and every one of the flowers has its own colour and smell.

The bill comes to $500, so that’s about $100 each.

We each (= every one of us) wanted the room overlooking the sea, so we tossed a coin to decide.

Nowadays or Now a days


Going by grammar rules, there is only one way to use this word, and that is nowadays – a single word and not as three different entities like now a days. If you use the word as a phrase ‘now a days’ instead of a single word ‘nowadays’, you will only make it grammatically incorrect.

We use nowadays to refer to the present time, to define “at current times” or to indicate something that is going on in recent days:

Nowadays, Emma doesn’t feel like going out with friends.   

Now a days, Emma doesn’t feel like going out with friends. 

How come we don’t see Emily around nowadays.               

How come we don’t see Emily around now a days.             


Earlier, the adverb nowadays used to be a three-word phrase, however, since 1880, grammarians have cut it short into a single word. Hence, the single word nowadays is the favoured choice in Modern English.

Some example sentences of ‘nowadays

Less and less people go to cinema nowadays.

People don’t carry their umbrellas much nowadays.

Young people nowadays don’t walk in the morning any more.

She doesn’t watch TV very much nowadays. She says there’s biased reporting.

The kitchens of nowadays are much more efficient than they had ever been.

People’s perspective on marriage is quite different nowadays than it was even a few years ago.

Nowadays you don’t see a young person vacate their seat for an older person on the bus.

TV shows nowadays don’t seem to last more than a couple of months, then you never hear of them again.


Alternatively, you can also use ‘these days’ or ‘today’ as adverbs meaning ‘at the present time, in comparison with the past’. ‘These days’ is more informal while ‘today’ is slightly formal.

Be careful! Do not use nowadays or these days with the possessive’s construction before a noun, or with of after a noun. With today, the possessive is quite normal: ‘today’s society’, ‘in today’s age’, ‘today’s world’, ‘today’s economic climate’, ‘today’s standards’:

Today’s world, and the world of the future, is different.        

Nowadays’ world, and the world of the future, is different.   

These days’ world, and the world of the future, is different. 


Also, do not use ‘nowadays’, ‘these days’ or ‘today’ as adjectives:

Computers nowadays/these days/today are much more efficient and economical.     

The nowadays computers /The these days computers/ The today’s computers are much more efficient and economical.   


More example sentences of ‘nowadays

Nowadays many people condemn cruelty to animals.

Many employers nowadays give their employees bonuses in the form of share options.

The only thing that’s changed is the media coverage and the public perception of politics nowadays.

There are a lot of short tricks to these problems nowadays that might not have been available in the past.

 Notice that the hyphenated ­ now-a-days has also fallen out of use.
 Last word

 ‘Nowadays’ is the correct use, ‘now a days’ isn’t.

Prefer to vs. Prefer over vs. Prefer than


Prefer: If you prefer one person or thing to another, you like the first one better.


My sister prefers dogs to cats.                               

My sister prefers dogs over cats.                          

My sister prefers dogs than cats.              

My sister prefers dogs rather than cats.                       

I prefer to drink tea than to drink coffee.            

I prefer to drink tea rather than drink coffee.        


Which preposition should you use after the verb ‘prefer’? Native as well as non-native speakers have grappled with the situation alike. To cut the story short, if you want to express that you like something more than something else, ‘prefer to’ is always a safer choice.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English Usage (MDEU) says that to is the common word used to construct comparisons using prefer: “when it is used to compare two things in the same sentence, the thing that comes second is usually introduced by to.

Hence, ‘prefer… instead of’, ‘prefer… more than’ and ‘prefer… than’ are incorrect.
Some example sentences of ‘prefer to

Emma prefers prose to poetry.

The old man prefers raincoat to umbrella.

Jane prefers bear to wine.

He prefers tea to coffee.

They prefer train to bus.

Our dog prefers fish to meat.

She prefers skirts to jeans.

Grandpa prefers the town to the country.

[ + -ing verb ] Father prefers staying home to going out.

She prefers her dress to cousin’s.

Everybody in my class prefers football to badminton.

Be Careful! Don’t use any preposition except to in sentences like these. Don’t say, for example ‘ My sister prefers dogs than cats.’

More example sentences of ‘prefer to’

Williams preferred cooking at home to eating in restaurants.

Grandma had two puppies and she preferred them to most people.

Nancy has become lazy, preferring taking a taxi to market to walking.

Be careful! Don’t use ‘prefer to’ when comparing two verbs. Instead, use ‘rather than’ or rephrase the whole sentence.

She would prefer to die rather than (to) go to her ex.          

She would prefer dying to going to her ex.                            

She would prefer to die to go to her ex.                                 

She would prefer to die to going to her ex.                             (awkward)

Notice that ‘prefer’ is rather formal. In spoken English, you often use expressions like… ‘better’ and ‘would rather’ instead. For example, instead of saying ‘my sister prefers dogs to cats’, you can say ‘my sister likes dogs better/rather than cats’.


Prefer over:

The use of “prefer over” in place of “prefer to” is less common and many native speakers consider it unnatural, so use it only at your own peril. Some people even say ‘prefer over’ sounds alien to them. Nonetheless, “prefer over” is gaining a bit of ground in passive voice:

Dane prefers having dogs over cats.

The democratic states are preferred to/over the less democratic ones.

Many plus-size women simply prefer the solid colours and will choose them over the other patterns.

When it comes to buying house, Sarah prefers private showing over open house visit.


Strictly speaking ‘Prefer than’ is incorrect.


Our survey shows that a vast majority of women prefer Jimmy Choo than other brands. 

However, if the sentence is rephrased by adding the comparative words “better” or “rather”, it would also be correct. (Conjunctive phrases connect two grammatical equivalents.

She much prefers it when her father tells her that than the other people do.     

Our survey shows that a vast majority of women prefer Jimmy Choo over other brands.

Our survey shows that a vast majority of women prefer Jimmy Choo better/ rather than other brands.

Around the world vs. Across the world vs. All over…


Around the world = around the world (or globe); all over the world; everywhere in the world (or globe); in many parts of the world; in a large proportion of Earth; in various parts of Earth; around Earth from east to west, or west to east, thus crossing all meridians. Examples: The company has many customers around the world. Acid rains have recently killed a vast volume of forests around the world. A wide variety of science experiments are being carried out around the world each day.


Across the world = throughout, all over, from one side to the other of, right through (the world). Examples: The disease is affecting millions of children across the world every day. Football is a universal language for millions of people across the world. Engagement with civil society organizations across the world is essential.


All over the world = throughout the world; in every part of the world. Examples: The place attracts visitors from all over the world/throughout the world. Examples: Wives are the same all over the world. Soy products are used all over the world. Selfishness is extreme all over the world.


At best you could draw a subtle difference between ‘across’ and ‘all over’. ‘Across’ involves a one-dimension movement, literally on the surface of something like a playground, street etc. ‘All over the world’ involves a scattering or dotting image, suggesting that ‘whether you move south, north, west or, east, wherever you go, you will ….’


When we come to actual usage, ‘around the world’ is relatively more popular than ‘across the world,’ according to a comparison of the two phrases in thousands of books tracked by Google’s Ngram Viewer. As you can see, ‘around the world’ is way ahead of ‘across the world’ in the usage and there has been an upward trend over the past many years in the number of people using it. However, all over the world simply means ‘throughout the world’; ‘in every part of the world.’


Now the question is: Are the three phrases always interchangeable or is there difference in terms of their meaning or collocate? The google search results testify there are far more sentences that come with around the worldand ‘all over the world’ comparing to across the world.’



‘Across the globe’: if you go ‘across’ a globe, you are talking about many countries.

‘The world over’: Everywhere on the earth. ‘Smiling is the same language the world over’.


Some example sentences of ‘around the world’


It is a raw material found in great quantities all around the world.

There remain many thousands of nuclear warheads around the world.

After the truce, leaders from countries all around the world met for the first time.

The organisations gathered volunteers around the world.

This is a best model and representatives from big companies around the world will be attending.

Additional technical support will be provided by technical experts selected from around the world.

Many young professionals and scholars from around the world will participate in the summit.

The employment of millions of workers around the world has been struck off with the stroke of a pen.

This is the challenge of human rights currently addressed by many leaders around the world.

Its national committees and programs around the world bring environmentalists together on these issues.


More example sentences of ‘around the world’


They may not have invented the battery, but millions of people around the world would agree that they perfected it.

Some estimates suggest that there are around 1.3 billion poor around the world who live on an income of less than $1 a day.

It is restoring peace, bringing solace and offering hope to millions of people afflicted by conflict and complex crises around the world.

Now we have introduced an environmental management system at all our 150 manufacturing sites around the world.

Companies are now offering a wide range of products and services from which people around the world can choose.

Our caring non-government organisations give poor children from around the world an opportunity to live a better life.

Products for children with special needs are subject to the most stringent quality and safety standards all around the world.


Some example sentences of ‘across the world’


The country has made thousands of enemies all across the world.

But the wealth is very unevenly distributed across the world.

There are signs of growth in the information technology across the world.

The tensions between both countries play out in different ways across the world.

The negative fallout of environmental degradation is felt all across the world.

We will continue working with you and others like you across the world.

Today, millions of people across the world work from their homes thanks to this pandemic.

We stand shoulder to shoulder in defence of democracy and freedom across the world.


More example sentences of ‘across the world’


The president wished to convey a deep message of condolence to all Catholics across the world.

Now it is our priority to build friendly relations with countries in our region and those across the world.

For the inaugural award in 2021, an impressive 56 applications from 42 cities across the world were received in 2022.

Our highly qualified doctors and specialists work in almost 60 locations across the world to perfect advanced technologies in healthcare sector.

Across the world violence, censorship and ownership of the media by a few big companies threaten the plurality of free speech.


Some example sentences of ‘all over the world’


These products are available all over the world.

Passport simulates training stages all over the world.

Women all over the world carry designer handbags.

Religious fanaticism is spreading all over the world.

Design industries all over the world prefer SOLIDWORKS experience.

MBBS certificates are commonly recognized all over the world.

Travellers were stranded all over the world due to travel ban amid Covid-19.

The cartoons have offended many Muslims all over the world.

The Prime Minister’s speech is attracting attention all over the world.

The investigating agency of the country has operatives all over the world tracking aliens.

Italian cuisine is in demand all over the world.

We hope to build and develop lasting friendly relations between countries all over the world.

In these times, people all over the world are living in desperate poverty.

Mr. Wilson has travelled all over the world and has never been denied access to any country. 


More example sentences of ‘all over the world’


There is a great number and variety of TANDEM Schools all over the world.

It would be our pleasure to have children and young people from all over the world.

The company’s dynamic team manages group trips requests all over the world.

Amid the war and destruction, meetings were held with leaders from all over the world.

All over the world we find very interesting projects which end in hands of big companies and this will continue happening.

There are engineering companies and research centres from all over the world, whose purpose is to exchange technical know-how.

With a click, you can find locations all over the world: cities, streets and addresses, and places to go to.

So we are glad to belong to this great company; we are glad to have managers and representatives all over the world.

It was estimated that at least three hundred thousand child soldiers were participating in armed conflicts all over the world.

Arouse vs. Rouse


Arouse (int.v.) = The verb arouse means 1- to awaken from sleep; to stimulate to action or to bodily readiness for activity; 2- to excite: a newspaper report that has aroused debate; 3- to excite (someone) sexually: to cause sexual arousal in (someone). Examples: He was aroused from a deep sleep by a loud noise. The debate aroused a lot of interest in the subject of history. He was snoring so loudly and nothing would arouse him. He couldn’t keep his eyes off the television; the clippings aroused him greatly.


Rouse (tr.v.) = The verb rouse means 1- to arouse from or as if from sleep or repose; 2- to stir up; 3- (int. v.) to become aroused; 4- to become stirred. Examples: He was roused by the drunken men in the street. (= awaken). A soft knock on the door barely roused Jane from her deep sleep. He roused and looked around. (cease to sleep or to be inactive; wake up)


Hence, the verb arouse is usually used figuratively or in reference to ‘make someone have a particular feeling’ while rouse more commonly refers to physical action and things that inspire action. Also, arouse is more often used in context of sex, so use it with caution! And rouse generally relates to ‘wake someone up’ or ‘make someone active’.


Some example sentences of ‘arouse’


The judgement being rather vague, it aroused strong feelings against Judge Goldsmith.

The prime minister’s speech is so well delivered that aroused a lot of interest among the audience.

The game was really well played and that’s why it aroused so much interest among the spectators.

The woman’s strange behaviour and gestures aroused suspicion among shopkeepers.

The place was so deserted and there were some strange noises coming from around the old church which aroused a sense of fear among us.

Something about the stuffed bag aroused the guard’s suspicions.

The movie aroused a lot of interest among its viewers.

The final match aroused a lot of passion among the ardent supporters.

The new dam proposals in the village are arousing unneeded discomfort among local peasants.


Notice that we frequently use ‘aroused’ in the English vocabulary, while ‘roused’ is used rarely. You’d better avoid the word ‘roused’ because it sounds unnatural. On the other hand, when using the word ‘aroused’, make sure in what context you are trying to say it – for sexual related feelings or other feelings. In American English, we only use the word ‘aroused’ for sexual related feelings, so it may just be best to avoid it in general!


Some example sentences of ‘rouse’


Jane’s evasiveness roused his curiosity.

She was roused after a small nap to the sounds of hawkers’ yelling. (When ‘aroused’ and ‘roused’ are being used as verbs for waking up, they are the same).

She was roused from a deep sleep by a hand on her shoulder. (cause to stop sleeping)

A weak cry roused him just as he was nodding off to sleep.

There, I roused Simon and Jane, leading them both out.

The novel roused the readers’ emotions by overt descriptions of violence.

And the dog growled back, simply annoyed at being roused from its sound sleep.

On her return to US, she made two attempts to rouse interest in the book.

Martha’s initial anger began to melt away as her curiosity was roused.


More example sentences of ‘arouse’


He had been aroused from deep slumber.

He admits he is aroused by jealousy.

It didn’t offend me, amuse me, arouse me, or astound me.

She admitted that she gets really sexually aroused by books.

He went upstairs and aroused his wife from her slumber.

Her interest was aroused in him because of the clothes that he was wearing.

And the coverage of Russians atrocities aroused feelings of shame rather than pride.

The economic slowdown aroused feelings of anxiety and apprehension among people.

Nobody is willing to talk about an issue that arouses violent feelings on both sides.

Alarmed at the violent demonstrations by the locals, Judge Bridgestone closed the hearings to the public.

Even a normal, healthy body weight may arouse feelings of tension and panic.

You should work on a subject that arouses real feelings, something that actually touches you.

But now the people are aroused and agitated by his failures to deliver on his several promises.

The food that aroused us most through smell alone included S’mores, Cronut, Chicken and Waffles.

Everybody in the hall was aroused by the images of disaster.

He further aroused the fans, shaking his fist in the air after winning the last set.

Behaviour of this sort arouses every cultured person and no haziness or lack of clarity can excuse him.

Politicians found it was easy to arouse people on issues like nationalism.

Merely arousing students to action once may not suffice to bring them out of lethargy.

How dare that the school think students would be sexually aroused by such clothes?

While men are aroused visually, women are more aroused by words.

Martha was aroused by the smell of smoke – to find the neighbour’s house on fire.

It was only then that the sound of approaching train had aroused him from his slumber.

Her alarm went off at 5 in the morning, arousing her from a peaceful sleep.

In a few days the refugees have succeeded in arousing feelings of disgust that they did not manage to arouse for decades.


More example sentences of ‘rouse’


He’d just stay a few more minutes, then rouse himself and go back.

George tried unsuccessfully to rouse himself from his stupor after the break-up.

Sarah’s thoughts were interrupted as a knock at the door roused her.

It rouses some sort of emotion in her: anger, jealousy, the desire to hurl things.

A knock on the door roused her from her seat, and she was more than a little reluctant to answer it.

He didn’t know what had roused him from his sleep, and he sat in bed thinking for a moment.

Jane took after her husband: both were roused to argue easily, but quickly found their anger cooling.

They quarrelled, like any couple in love and they both had terrible tempers when they were roused.

A sudden knock on the door roused her from her deliberations, and she called out an invitation without checking the identity of the visitor.

The labours unions had been roused to anger by a recent decision of the government to nationalize the railways.

Misinformation vs. Disinformation


Misinformation = the false information which is intended to mislead; incorrect or misleading information.

Disinformation = false information, deliberately misleading or biased information; manipulated narrative or facts; propaganda. Disinformation is knowingly spreading misinformation. Information which is spread to make someone or something look good or bad can be disinformation.


Examples: There’s a lot of misinformation about the coronavirus that needs to be corrected.

In the chaotic hours after they filed for divorce, a lot of misinformation was reported in the media.

They spread disinformation in order to destroy her career in politics.

The foreign media claimed there was an official disinformation campaign by the junta government.


Misinformation can be differentiated from disinformation, which is deliberately deceptive. If you are spreading around information that is wrong but you don’t know it is wrong, then you are spreading misinformation. Hence, misinformation doesn’t care about intent, and so is simply a term for any kind of wrong or false information.


Hence, misinformation refers to untrue or out-of-context information that is presented as fact notwithstanding an intent to deceive. Disinformation is a type of misinformation that is intentionally false and intended to be deliberately deceptive.

Both misinformation and disinformation involve the sharing of bad or disproved information, with contrasting intents and purposes.


Disinformation in comparison with misinformation is a relatively new word, first recorded in 1965–70. It’s a translation of the Russian word dezinformátsiya, in turn based on the French désinformer (“to misinform”).


In English language, the prefix dis- can be used to specify a reversal or negative instance of the word that follows. For example, disrespect and disobedience are opposites or negations of respect and obedience. Disinformation, then, can be meant as “reverse information” or “anti-information” specifically created to lie to and mislead other people.


To be precise, use the word disinformation when you know for a fact that false or erroneous information is being spread on purpose to hurt or damage, especially a government, organization, or public figure. If you can’t figure out for certain why someone is spreading bad information, it’s best to use misinformation.


What distinguishes misinformation from disinformation is the author’s intent and whether they know that the information is false. So, misinformation is bad information that you thought was true and disinformation is also bad information that you knew wasn’t true.


Some example sentences of ‘misinformation’


The admin took great pains to have this misinformation corrected.

Postponement of exams was a deliberate piece of misinformation.

There had been worries that it could have been deliberate misinformation.

It has become just another part of the whole elaborate web of half-truths, misinformation and spin.

Letters of apology were sent to Martha by those who had spread misinformation about her.

How sad Philips! You have allowed yourself to be used by mischief-makers to publish misinformation.

The most of information and propaganda on electronic voting machines is based on misinformation.

A lot of misinformation, exaggerated fictions and relics of wartime propaganda are being reported in the media.

These loud anchors, sold out editors don’t want to give people news or information -they give them misinformation.

And they came out with a whole host of false propaganda and the government is fighting back against that misinformation.

To spread misinformation and make disparaging and derogatory remarks about any group is unacceptable.


Some example sentences of ‘disinformation’


It was a highly coordinated disinformation campaign to malign the Leftists.

They systematically manipulated the entire intelligence system with clever disinformation.

The employees union has insisted that a campaign of disinformation is under way.

During a war both sides hide their correct information and spread disinformation.

This propaganda is full of misinformation, disinformation, noninformation, and just plain lies.

How could the common man distinguish between information and disinformation spread by the press?

Soviet spokesmen kept up a steady stream of denials and disinformation on Ukraine war

We are being fed with a deluge of information and disinformation on this one day in day out.

What worries most is the malicious and continuous disinformation given by media to the people.

They argued that the ISIS would not have missed such an opportunity to feed the West disinformation.

The misinformation and disinformation that is being fed makes it impossible for any fair-minded commentator to take sides in the issue.

It was all disinformation which they backed up with fictitious facts and figures to make it appear genuine that he siphoned off public funds for private business ventures.

If I were he/ him

When we deal with two pronouns at the same time in a statement, we use both pronouns either in subjective or objective case: ‘He and I arranged the party’; ‘if you don’t want to go alone, you can take either her or me along’, ‘she and I are schoolmates.’

He and I are old buddies.                              (NOT He and me are old buddies)

The boss and I were in the office.

The teacher made a copy of the project for Kelly and me.

Jack and I are planning a visit to grandma.


We use subjunctive when we want to express wishes or desires. Example: I wish she were my teacher.


In the case of ‘If I were he/ him…’, we need the subject pronoun because it is the subject complement and not the object. The rule says the pronoun that follows a linking verb is and should be a subject complement, not an object. Here, ‘were’ is a linking verb and needs predicate nominative after it. Like, ‘This is he’. So, we’ll take the subject pronoun ‘he’ and not the object pronoun ‘him’: ‘If I were him, I would do the same’; ‘if I were she, I would dump that loser’.

However, it would be curious to know in the case of ‘It’s me’ or ‘It is I’, where you could also correctly use the subject pronoun ‘It is I.’ Though the sentence with subject pronoun seems absolutely correct, it doesn’t sound good to ears.


Some examples of ‘if I were he’

If I were he, I would resign from that position.

He walked to the station; if I were he, I’d take a taxi.

I wouldn’t worry too much about that stupid girl if I were he.

I’d definitely apply for that job if I were he.

I wouldn’t give it too much importance if I were he.

So if I were he, I’d just leave the matter aside and talk about the future.

I would take that ‘racist’ remark too seriously if I were he.

I think it counts as ‘average’, and I wouldn’t worry if I were he.

I’d give her a call if I were he, and work something out.

If I were she, I would wear pink eye shadow.


Remember that in conversation and in informal writing, you could also use ‘was’: ‘If I was a car mechanic, I’d service my car myself’; ‘ieverything was okay, this wouldn’t happen’.

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