There being…

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In formal English we use a clause with there being to introduce a reason for something. There being basically denotes something like ‘because there is’:

 

There being no evidence against him, Frank is unlikely to be convicted (= Because there is no evidence against him…)

There being no compelling documentary evidence of the human rights abuses, the country was let off lightly by the United Nations Security Council.

There being no alternative, Adams agreed to mortgage the 20-acre family farm in Cashel.

There being only one train every alternate day to the Balkans, he decided to fly.

There being a slowdown in auto sales, companies were forced to either shut down or axe shifts.

There being no strong objections to the proposal, they went ahead with approving the project.

There being no opposition from local residents, they are all set to organise the music festival in the neighbourhood park.

There being a complete shutdown of the factory, it is thought it will render many a worker jobless.

I’m good vs. I’m well

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I’m good = According to Cambridge Dictionary, ‘good’ means ‘healthy or well’: She didn’t go to the concert because she wasn’t feeling too good.How’s your father?“He’s good, thanks.” So, ‘I’m good’ is an informal way to give a general reply when someone greets you: “How are you?” “I’m good, thanks.”

 

I’m well = We commonly use ‘well’ as an adverb when something is done to a good standard or in a good way: She sings very well. He drives very well at night. We also use well as an adjective, normally after a linking verb such as be, look or get, to mean ‘in good health’:

 

A: How are you?

B: I’m very well, thanks. And you?

What’s the matter? You don’t look very well.

 

In American English, good is more common and casual than well in this context. Most authorities and grammar books say that Well and good have similar meaning, but we generally use good as an adjective and not as an adverb particularly in the context of a reply to enquiring about a person’s wellbeing.

 

If we have to draw a parallel between ‘I’m good’ and ‘I’m well’, we would say that if someone is clearly enquiring about your health, “I’m well,” can be the normal response. If you are confident about your good health, your responses can go either way; though ‘well’ can be reserved for more formal situations.

 

Here the difference can briefly be summarized:

 

I feel well.                            (excepting specifically referring to a prior illness)

I feel good.                 

 

I am feeling well.                 (excepting specifically referring to a prior illness)

I am feeling good.       

I am well.                           (excepting specifically referring to a prior illness)

I am good.                           (Here, am is a linking verb that takes an adjectival         predicate and good is that adjective.

I am doing well.         

 

I feel differently.             (excepting feeling things with one’s hands; differently from the way in which one used to feel by touching)

I feel different.                     (In the adjective form, one can be bad/different/etc. while in the adverb form, the manner of feeling can be bad/different/etc.)

 

Hence, good and well are not as tricky as you might think and the whole dispute revolved around understanding how linking verbs differ from action verbs. An action verb is a verb that describes an action, like come, go, jump, eat, kick, think, cry or smile: Emily is going to college. The action verb is going.  It describes what Emily is doing.

 

A linking verb is a verb that links the subject of the sentence to information about that subject. Linking verbs do not represent action: to be (is/ am/ are, was/ were, has been/ have been, is being/ are being, was being/ will have been, etc.)  to become (become(s)/ became, has/ have/ had become, will become, will have become, etc.)  to seem (seems/ seemed, has/ have/ had seemed, is/ are seeming, was/ were seeming, will seem etc.): The rose is pink. Here, ‘is‘ is a linking verb that connects the subject, rose, to information about that subject (that it is pink). The teacher is intelligent. Here ‘is‘ is a linking verb that connects the subject, teacher, to information about that subject (that he is intelligent).

 

Notice that we also use ‘I’m good’ to reject and to ridicule an offered good or service by feigning satiation when ‘No thank you’ will just not do.

A: Would you like to go out for a ride? The weather is so lovely!

B: ‘No, I’m good.’

Scarcely had he gone out than a client came to meet him – incorrect

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The adverbials hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are often used to emphasise that one event quickly followed another. If hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are in the initial position, the subject and auxiliary are inverted.  We usually use the past perfect tense for the verb describing the earlier event. We don’t use Hardly, scarcely, and rarely with negative constructions. Thus, it is wrong to say I couldn’t hardly speak to him but correct to say I could hardly speak to him:

 

Notice that hardly, scarcely and barely are followed by when, while no sooner is followed by than.

 

Hardly… when

Hardly had I finished the long divisions when the examiner took my answer sheet away.

Scarcely had he boarded the train when the whistle sounded and the train gave a bump.

Barely had he arrived home when his wife began to whine about how hard she had been forced to do household chores.

Hardly had the party begun when the police raided the pub.

 

No sooner… than

No sooner had his new novel come into the market than it flew off the shelves.

No sooner had the referee’s whistle come than the celebrations began at the stalls.

No sooner had she realized that she had made a mistake than she apologised.

No sooner had he taken the meal out of the oven than someone knocked at the door.

Have to vs. Have got to

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Have to and have got to mean almost the same and imply ‘to be obliged or find it necessary to do the specified thing.’ Have got to is more common in informal situations. Have (got) to comes before the main verb and it is often contracted in speaking:

 

I have to go home.                  (a simple statement)

I have got to go home.            (emphasis on ‘got’; shows more urgency

 

You have to try on these shoes. They are so trendy.

You don’t have to pay for your travelling. You’re going on a freebie.

There’s not much time left for you to do all you have to do. You’ve to be serious.

They’ve got to be extra cautious with animals in the zoo. Few of them have died of severe winter.

You’ve got to do your homework by yourself because your private tutor has left the job.

You’ve got to push the elevator button a bit more forcefully.

You’ve got to fill in this form to enrol in evening classes at the community college.   

Frank cancelled our little dinner plans for tonight. He’s (got) to work late.

You can’t enter this country. You have (got) to get your documents.

 

Notice that have (got) to cannot be followed by a modal verb:

They’ve to walk the dog before they go to bed.                    √     

They’ve to must walk the dog before they go to bed.            

 

We also use Have (got) to without main verb when the main verb and any complement of the verb is definite:

Does he have to run for office this year? Yes, he has (got) to.

 

Notice that we form the negative of have got to by adding not after have. We never use don’t, doesn’t, didn’t:

You haven’t got to require proof of identity to register at the library.            

You don’t have got to require proof of identity to register at the library.        

 

When we form questions with have to, we use do, does, did before the subject:

 Do we have to ask the waiters which menu items are vegetarian?

 

Be careful! The subject and have change positions to form questions with have got to:

 Have we got to ask the waiters which menu items are vegetarian?

 

We also use Have (got) to to make deductions or draw conclusions. However, in this context, must is more common:

You parted company with Freddie with a degree of sadness. This must be a tough time for you.

You parted company with Freddie with a degree of sadness. This has got to be a tough time for you.

Emily threw party for the senior class yesterday but Sharon didn’t show up. There’s got to be a reason.

 

Notice that Have got to can be used in the present tense only while Have to can be used in a variety of forms:

You’ve got to show your support by signing your name on this sheet.

Not: You’d got to show your support by signing your name on this sheet.  

 

In British English, the past participle of the verb get is got while American speakers say gotten.

You could have got struck by lightning just walking out of your house.       (British English)

You could have gotten struck by lightning just walking out of your house.  (American English)

She’s gotten rather plump lately.

Have you got any sugar? (but NOT Have you gotten …)

 

Be careful! Have got to is NOT common in the negative form in US English. Use don’t and doesn’t with have to:

Sunday they don’t have to get me up at the crack of dawn.

I don’t have to be at the party until 10pm tomorrow.

She doesn’t have to start her new gym classes until August 19th.

 

In questions, don’t use ‘do’ or ‘does’. Instead, change the word order in the same way as the verb ‘to be’ and modal auxiliaries:

They have got a luxurious villa on the west bank of the River Euphrates. = Have they got…?

He has got a farmhouse in the Norwegian countryside. = Has he got…?

You have got room for Emily in the car. = Have you got…?

 

Avoid have got and have got to (meaning must), if you could do with have and have to:

I have (got) some here.            

They haven’t (got) any more.   

I have (got) to go to the office. 

 

It’s me or it’s I

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Generally we use both ‘it is I’ and ‘it’s me’ to introduce ourselves. The only difference is that ‘it’s me’ is more common and casual whereas ‘it is I’ is just formal, and will sound outdated. We are hearing ‘it’s me’ more often in our day-to-day conversations. Some people are of the opinion that in academic sense, ‘it is me’ is not grammatically correct, but is spoken frequently by most English speakers.

Most grammar style books suggest that when a pronoun follows a linking verb, such as ‘is,’ the pronoun should be in the subject case. It’s also called the ‘nominative.’ Now it is correct to say, ‘It is I:

 

Who called Nancy? It was she.

Who told you about the accident? It was I.

Who settled the bitter argument between the passengers? It must have been they.

Who takes care of the lawn? It is we.

 

Now you might be wondering if all these statements are grammatically correct. Yes, they are! That’s traditional grammar and these rules are being followed for ages. During the course of the eighteenth century, the rule relating to pronouns was that – a pronoun in the nominative case (subject pronoun) must follow a form of to be:

It is I.

It is we.

It is they.

 

Basically, this rule is based on Latin grammar. However, the rule does not get in the way of most native English speakers who are quite comfortable speaking ‘it’s me.’

It is me.          (colloquial)

It is I.               (literary)

 

Notice that it’s me’ is also idiomatic English whereas ‘it is I’ is not.

In her book ‘Woe Is I: The Grammarphobe’s Guide to Better English in Plain English,’ Patricia O’Connor writes that almost everyone says, ‘It is me,’ and that the ‘It is I’ construction just seems to be extinct:

According to Oxford Dictionary, traditional grammar teaches that it is correct to say ‘between you and me’ and incorrect to say ‘between you and I.’

In telephonic conversation, when someone asks, ‘Is Frank there?’ Frank’s response might be, ‘This is he.’ However, in a face-to-face interaction, Frank is much more likely to say’ ‘it’s me.’

Do not assume that the usage of to be followed by a nominative pronoun (I, you, he, she, we, they) has completely vanished from our conversations or is destined to be. It’s just passing out of use in the modern language.

He, not I, am or is …subject-verb agreement

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When two subjects are contrasted in a sentence, the verb agrees with the affirmative subject:

He, not I, am responsible for this terrible mess.        

He, not I, is responsible for this terrible mess.           

 

She, not you, always complain about the stench coming from the drains.  

She, not you, always complains about the stench coming from the drains. 

 

They, not he, was first to report on the scandal.                   

They, not he, were first to report on the scandal.                  

 

I, not he, has suffered the most since mother’s death.         

I, not he, have suffered the most since mother’s death.      

Begin vs. Start

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Begin and start both refer to the beginning of an action which is going to be performed. Begin is an irregular verb (Present begin, Past began & Participle begun) whereas start is regular and has its past and participle started.

 

Most etymologists and grammar books suggest that begin and start are interchangeable and there is no real difference in meaning and it all depends on the context where one word may differ with other. However, if we exhaustively analyse both words, there are some striking differences between them – one form (or the other) can be used in some particular situations.

 

To make life easier, we must affirm that in some particular situations, one specific word is to be used.

 

Begin: shows that the subject is carrying out the first or earliest part of an action which will be going on for a while. Begin is followed by a noun, a verb in the –ing form or a verb in the infinitive. In formal writing, begin is more desirable than start:

 

In the latest India New Zealand match, India had just begun playing their match when rain god played spoilsport.

 

Notice that with begin, the action is very often quite formal:

The President has begun to congratulate the winning teams.

 

Start: less formal than begin. Start is also followed by a noun, a verb + ing, or an infinitive, in the same conditions as begin. Start is also used in some particular ways – to come into movement, into being in operation, for a machine:

 

Can you start the generator while I start cleaning the stable?

Jeff Bezos started his company Amazon from his own garage.

He started his consulting business in 1980, after working in the Capital Development Office of the Department of Commerce.

 

Be careful! After an -ing form, do not use begin/ start+ a second verb in the -ing form.  Instead, use the infinitive form.

 

Frank is beginning driving very quickly and well now.          

Frank is beginning to drive very quickly and well now.         

 

Some more examples:

When did she begin/start learning French?

The matinee show didn’t begin/start until 2 pm.

 

Jane is having trouble beginning the printer.                                     

Jane is having trouble starting the printer (means it doesn’t work)   

 

They began their family business, a mining company, and it’s been going really well.   

They started their family business, a mining company, and it’s been going really well.  

Brothers should live in harmony. They should never fall …..

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(A) off

(B) out

(C) apart

(D) away

 

Fall out: ‘have an argument, to argue with someone and stop being friendly with them’:

After a long standoff, Emily had fallen out with her family.

Sales of these products have fallen off in recent months.

 

Fall off: ‘to become detached and drop to the ground, to drop unintentionally to the ground from (a high object, bicycle, etc), especially after losing one’s balance’:

The plaster of his bedroom has now come away from the wall and fallen off.

The handle of my suitcase just fell off suddenly.

 

Fall apart: ‘break up, come apart, or disintegrate’:

Their marriage was likely to fall apart when she discovered his husband had been seeing another woman.

These shoes weren’t the best quality and fell apart very easily.

 

To break owing to long use or poor construction:

Don’t push the door forcefully, the latch may come apart.

The chassis of the old car is falling apart.

 

To become disorganized and ineffective:

Since you have no intention to continue, this project will finally fall apart.

 

Go to pieces:

The dryer finally broke. The old bed finally fell apart completely.

 

Fall away: ‘fall away(in sport) play less well’:

When he got out, the whole team fell away.

By early in the second half the whole team was exhausted and fell away.

Ans: (B) Out.

 

Adverbs, Types of Adverbs, Rules of Adverbs, Adjective or Adverb?, Spot the Error

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What is an Adverb?

An adverb is a word that modifies or describes a verb (they played nicely), an adjective (very good), another adverb (treat so badly), or even a whole sentence (Unfortunately, they lost the game). Adverbs often end in -ly, but some appear to be exactly the same as the adjectives. Here are some examples of adverbs (in bold):

  • Emily sang beautifully.
  • The match ended too
  • Fortunately, we made it to the meeting in time.
  • They will seriously consider his proposal.
  • Darren sings loudly in the bathroom.
  • The dog impatiently waited for his food.

The adverbs in each of the sentences above answer the question in what manner? How did Emily sing? Beautifully. How did the match end? Too quickly. How did we make it to the meeting? Fortunately in time. Adverbs can also tell us when (They arrived early) and where (Turn right).


Types of Adverbs

Adverbs provide a description of a verb in a sentence. There are five basic types of adverbs in the English language, namely:  Adverb of Time, Adverb of Place, Adverb of Manner, Adverb of Frequency and Adverb of Degree.

Here is a brief explanation of each of the adverbs, along with examples:

Adverbs of Time

An adverb of time gives information about when a verb takes place. They are placed usually at the beginning or end of a sentence. We put it at the beginning of a sentence when we want to emphasise to express the moment something happened. Examples of adverbs of time: Never, lately, just, always, recently, during, yet, soon, sometimes, usually, so far, etc.

  • So far, we have not found any ambiguities in his statement.
  • She hasn’t been walking her dog lately.
  • They have recently bought a new car.

Adverbs of Place

An Adverb of place shows where the verb is happening. It’s usually placed after the main verb or object, or at the end of the sentence. Examples of adverbs of place are:

Here, there, nowhere, everywhere, out, in, above, below, inside, outside, into, etc.

  • She went to the zoo, and saw the animals everywhere!
  • He lost his way and didn’t know where he was heading.
  • We can’t get these CDs at this store, let’s look somewhere else.

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner are used to express the way or how something is done. An adverb can be added to a verb to modify its meaning. “He plays football.” – An adverb of manner can be added to the verb (play) to modify its meaning and give us more information on how he plays football.

He plays football superbly. He plays football beautifully. He plays football badly.

Notice that most of adverbs of manner end in –ly. Examples of them are:

Neatly, slowly, quickly, sadly, calmly, politely, loudly, kindly, lazily, etc.

  • Joe gathered his toys and put them in the filing cabinet.
  • He politely opened the door for us as we entered their house.
  • Their pet dog rested lazily on the garden sofa.

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of degree express the level or intensity of a verb, adjective, or even another adverb.

Example of adverbs of degree include: almost, quite, nearly, too, enough, just, hardly, simply, so, etc.

  • Can I accompany you to the movies, too?
  • Is she in a hurry? She is leaving so quickly.
  • He’s so excited to join his new employer.

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency are used to show routine or repeated activities; hence they are often used with the present simple tense. If a sentence has only one verb, place the adverb of frequency in the middle of the sentence so that it is positioned after the subject but before the verb. Examples of adverbs of frequency are:

Never, always, rarely, sometimes, normally, seldom, usually, again, etc.

  • He rarely goes to movies these days.
  • Wilson usually goes for a walk after dinner.
  • He has always been partying all night on weekends.


Rules of Adverbs

The following rules for using adverb can be very useful for finding errors in a sentence.

Rule 1

To form an adverb, -ly can be added to its adjective form. Some examples are:

She sings sweet/ sweetly. How does she sing? Sweetly.

Mr. Wilson is a slow/ slowly walker. Slow is an adjective describing walker, so no -ly is attached.

She runs fast/fastly. Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has -ly attached to it. He performed bad/badly in the exams. Badly describes how he performed, so -ly is added.

Rule 2

No -ly is attached with linking verbs such as taste, smell, look, feel, which pertain to the senses. Adverbs are often misplaced in such sentences, which require adjectives instead. Examples:

Mangoes smell sweet/sweetly.

Do the mangoes actively smell with noses? No! in this case, smell is a linking verb—which requires an adjective to modify mangoes — hence, ‘sweet’.

Mother looked angry/angrily. Since we are describing mother’s appearance (she appeared angry), not angrily.

Mother looked angry/angrily at Sarah.

Here, mother actively looked (used her eyes), so angrily is correct.

They feel bad/badly about the incident. (‘Bad’ is correct as they are not feeling in a physical manner)

Rule 3

Good’ is an adjective, whose adverb equivalent is ‘well’.

He’s done a good job. (Good describes the job)

He’s done the job well. (Well answers how)

A ripe mango smells sweet. (Not sweetly)

Rule 4

Good and well while referring to health

Pamela looks good today. (What type of person is she?)

Pamela looks well today. (How is Pamela? – She may have been ill, but now she is fit again.)

Grandpa does not look well today. Grandma doesn’t feel well, either.

Rule 5

In formal usage, do not drop the -ly from an adverb when using the comparative form.

He went away quicker than she did.          

He went away more quickly than she did.  

Speak quieter, please!               

Speak more quietly, please!       

Rule 6

Adverb ‘too much’ is used with nouns and adverb ‘much too’ with adjective:

His injuries give him too much pain. (Here pain is a noun)

He is much too vindictive.  (Here vindictive is adjective)

Rule 7

Adverb ‘fairly’ is usually used with positive sense while ‘rather’ with negative or unfavourable sense:

Emily is fairly tall.

This is rather tedious maths problem.

Rule 8

Enough’ should be preceded by an adjective

Jack is now enough strong to lift this box.   

Jack is now strong enough to lift this box.   

Joe is enough intelligent to qualify this interview.   

Joe is intelligent enough to qualify this interview.   

Rule 9

Adverb ‘very’ is used in positive degree; ‘much’ is used in comparative degree

Joe is very intelligent.

Aeroplanes are much faster than trains.

Rule 10

Late’ shows period of time and ‘lately’ shows recently.

She always comes lately.        

She always comes late.         

Sharon late had picked a quarrel with her friend.       

Sharon lately had picked a quarrel with her friend.   

Rule 11:

If the sentence begins with hardly, never, seldom, scarcely, rarely, no sooner etc. then the verb is in inverted form.

No sooner they had reached the cinema than the movie started.   

No sooner had they reached the cinema than the movies started.   

Hardly she helps with household chores.         

Hardly does she help with household chores.    

  

Elementary Exercises

 

  1. The novel is __________ interesting. (quite/ too)
  2. She __________ goes out. (rare/ rarely )
  3. I would like to go to cinema_________, if you will let me come. (too/ also)
  4. He _____________ has dinner at 9, then he goes for a walk. (usual/ usually)
  5. He has __________ been to Switzerland in his life. (not/ never)
  6. My colleagues in office are ____________ Chinese. (mostly/ most)
  7. Father was __________ impressed with Joe’s performance in the exam. (very/ too)
  8. I ______________ watch Hollywood films. (occasionally/ occasion)
  9. I live___________ to the City Centre. (closely/ close)
  10. Although they don’t have very much themselves, they ___________share with those who are in need. (Cheerful/ cheerfully)
  11. Emily drove so fast that she was __________ injured. (bad/ badly)
  12. Father is __________ upset about crashing his car. (terrible/ terribly)
  13. She speaks so __________; I can’t make it out. (fast/ fastly)
  14. Don’t speak so __________. I can’t hear you. (quiet/ quietly)
  15. Sharon looks __________. What’s the matter with her? (sad/ sadly)

 

Answers Elementary Exercises

 

  1. Quite and very are used in affirmative while too is used when something is in excess, such as temperature, difficulty, etc.; for example, “too hot“, “too challenging“, or “too soft“.
  2. Rarely is an adverb while rare is an adjective.
  3. Too is used at the end of the statement.
  4. Usually
  5. Never
  6. Mostly
  7. Very
  8. Occasionally
  9. Close
  10. Cheerfully
  11. Badly
  12. Terribly
  13. Fast
  14. Quietly
  15. Sad

 

Comprehensive Advanced Exercises I

 

Read the sentence to find out whether there is any error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (e). Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.

 

  1. The teacher scarcely went out (a)/ than (b)/ she started talking. (c)/ No error (d)
  2. Not only (a)/ she bought the groceries from market, (b)/ but also did the usual household chores. (c)/ No error (d)
  3. Scarcely (a)/ he left the meeting (b)/ before (c)/ there were murmurs of dissent from his colleagues. /No error (d)
  4. He has failed (a)/ in the exams. (b)/ He has not worked very hard lately. (c)/ No error (d)
  5. What’s wrong (a)/ with this take-away meal? (b)/ It looks well to me. (c)/ No error (d)
  6. The kitchen floor (a)/ was so dirty. (b)/ The maid wiped it cleanly. (c)/ No error (d)
  7. Mother grew calmly (a)/ after she heard (b)/ the good news. (c)/ No error (d)
  8. Even after (a)/ three months of lessons, (b)/ Tom drives the car bad. (c)/ No error (d)
  9. She careless (a)/ put the vase on the table. (b)/ It fell to the floor. (c)/ No error (d)
  10. Sharon is going (a)/ to throw a party on Saturday. (b)/ She has final got a job. (c)/ No error (d)
  11. She’s always in a hurry. (a)/ I can’t understand (b)/ why she walks so quick. (c)/ No error (d)
  12. She prefers (a)/ praying (b)/ in a lone place. (c)/ It’s always quiet. /No error (d)
  13. Jack half-hearted (a)/ took the assistant job. (b)/ He had been looking for a higher position (c)/ all these days. /No error (d)
  14. Sharon danced beautiful. (a)/ She’s been taking Scottish dance classes (b)/ since she was eleven. (c)/ No error (d)
  15. She speaks French (a)/ very good. (b)/ She has lived in France (c)/ for ten years. /No error (d)
  16. Emily always plays (a)/ loudly music on weekends. (b)/ It’s so annoying. (c)/ No error (d)
  17. Please walk in the hallway (a)/ careful. (b)/ The walls have just been painted. (c)/ No error (d)
  18. Harris is very smart, (a)/ but (b)/ he is not very well at studies. (c)/ No error (d)
  19. He reacted angry (a)/ to the news of his detention. (b)/ I had never seen him so upset. (c)/ No error (d)
  20. He didn’t complete understand (a)/ the teacher’s instructions; (b)/ though most of them finished their assignments. (c) /No error (d)

 

Answers Comprehensive Advanced Exercises I

 

  1. (b) Replace ‘than’ with ‘before’.
  2. (b) There should be inversion with negative verbs; hence not only did she buy
  3. (b) Scarcely did he leave the meeting before….inversion of verb.
  4. (c) Replace ‘very’ with ‘too’.
  5. (c) Replace ‘well’ with ‘fine’.
  6. (c) Replace ‘cleanly’ with ‘clean’.
  7. (a) Replace ‘calmly’ with ‘calm’.
  8. (c) Replace ‘bad’ with ‘badly’.
  9. (a) Replace adjective ‘careless’ with the adverb ‘carelessly’.
  10. (c) Replace ‘final’ with ‘finally’.
  11. (c) Replace ‘quick’ with ‘quickly’.
  12. (c) Replace ‘lone’ with ‘lonely’.
  13. (a) Replace ‘half-hearted’ with ‘half-heartedly’.
  14. (a) Replace ‘beautiful’ with ‘beautifully’.
  15. (b) Replace ‘good’ with ‘well’.
  16. (b) Replace ‘loudly’ with ‘loud’.
  17. (b) Replace ‘careful’ with ‘carefully’.
  18. (c) Replace ‘well’ with ‘good’.
  19. (a) Replace ‘angry’ with ‘angrily’.
  20. (a) Replace ‘complete’ with ‘completely’.

 

Comprehensive Advanced Exercises II

 

  1. Moose doesn’t know (a)/ even (b)/ basic calculations; (c)/ he is extreme stupid. (d)/ No error (e)
  2. This egg (a)/ has become (b)/ stale; (c)/ it tastes awfully. (d)/ No error (e)
  3. That iron rod (a)/ is too hot. (b)/ You have to be carefully (c)/ with it. (d)/ No error (e)
  4. She comes often (a)/ to Canada (b)/ and (c)/ meets my family. (d)/ No error (e)
  5. It was much cold (a)/ today (b)/ and we put some more wood (c)/ on the fire. (d)/ No error (e)
  6. She has not seldom (a)/ drunk coffee (b)/ since (c)/ she left Switzerland. (d)/ No error (e)
  7. Although (a)/ he was (b)/ in Egypt last month, (c)/ he never saw the Giza Pyramids. (d)/ No error (e)
  8. He struggled (a)/ manly (b)/ with some of the worst (c)/ situations in life. (d)/ No error (e)
  9. He didn’t know hardly (a)/ anyone (b)/ in the city (c)/ and so felt insecure. (d)/ No error (e)
  10. I never remember (a)/ to have met (b)/ such a slow and dumb man (c)/ in my life. (d)/ No error (e)
  11. He eats his breakfast (a)/ very quicker (b)/ than his sister (c)/ does. (d)/ No error (e)
  12. He told his employer (a)/ as blunt as he could (b)/ but (c)/ he seemed the least convinced. (d)/ No error (e)
  13. They have no time (a)/ to play volleyball (b)/ and no desire (c)/ neither. (d)/ No error (e)
  14. The grandmother feels well (a)/ now (b)/ because she soundly slept (c)/ last night. (d)/ No error (e)
  15. Have you got distinction (a)/ in Physics? (b)/ Yes, (c)/ I haven’t. (d)/ No error (e)
  16. What to talk of (a)/ getting good grades, (b)/ he didn’t qualify (c)/ even the exam. (d)/ No error (e)
  17. Never in the history of America, (a)/ there has been (b)/ as good a statesman (c)/ as George Washington. (d)/ No error (e)
  18. Yes, Jack has acted nobler (a)/ than most of his classmates (b)/ and you have no choice (c)/ but to accept him. (d)/ No error (e)
  19. He is being paid (a)/ handsome salary (b)/ and he’s earning (c)/ fifty thousand dollars monthly. (d)/ No error (e)
  20. The beggar on the pavement (a)/ had barely nothing (b)/ to cover (c)/ when we met him a while ago. (d)/ No error (e)

Answers Comprehensive Advanced Exercises II

  

  1. (d) Extremely
  2. (d) Awful
  3. (c) Careful
  4. (a) Put ‘often’ before ‘comes’.
  5. (a) Replace ‘much’ with ‘very’.
  6. (a) Remove ‘not’ before ‘seldom’.
  7. (d) Replace ‘never saw’ with ‘didn’t see’.
  8. (b) Replace ‘manly’ with ‘manfully’.
  9. (a) Replace ‘didn’t know’ with ‘knew’.
  10. (a) Replace ‘never remember’ with ‘don’t remember’.
  11. (b) Replace ‘very quicker’ with ‘more quickly’.
  12. (b) Replace ‘blunt’ with ‘bluntly’.
  13. (d) Replace ‘neither’ with ‘either’.
  14. (c) Change ‘soundly slept’ to ‘slept soundly’.
  15. (c) Replace ‘yes’ with ‘no’.
  16. (a) Replace ‘what’ with ‘not’.
  17. (b) Invert the sentence as ‘has there been’.
  18. (a) Replace ‘nobler’ with ‘more nobly’.
  19. (d) Replace ‘monthly’ with ‘a month’.
  20. (b) Replace ‘nothing’ with ‘anything’.

 

 

 

 

 

Underneath vs. Beneath vs. Under vs. Below

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Underneath, beneath, under and below’ are all similar in meaning and can mean ‘in a lower place or position; covered by something else.’ The difference between them is very subtle. So, it would be helpful to know what each word signifies:

Underneath = below the surface of; directly beneath; situated below or under something else; lower. We can prefer ‘underneath’ to ‘under’ to explain the location of something with a little more emphasis. ‘Underneath’ is also a little bit more emotional and exciting than ‘under’:

He wore khaki underwear underneath his pants.

Where did you find your keys? What? Underneath the doormat!

 

More examples:

His flat is right underneath mine.

There’s another pair of sandals underneath the cot.

This metrorail goes right underneath the city.

The enforcement agencies checked his car underneath with vehicle inspection mirror.

When Jane was about to reveal a secret, Jack gave her a soft kick underneath the table.

When father came inside, Jack hid himself underneath the pool table.

In exams, she used to pass notes with friends underneath the table.

When Janet came from work, she found the invitation card underneath the matting.

Underneath that shy air, Sarah is a warm and open young woman.

She’s got to appear calm in front of the magistrate even if she’s terrified underneath.

 

Beneath = underneath so as to be hidden, covered, or protected; at a lower level or layer than; lower in grade or rank than. ‘Beneath’ is more formal than ‘under’ and is common in formal writing. We don’t use ‘beneath’ often in spoken English; in informal speaking, ‘under’ and ‘below’ are much more common:

He’s been smuggling cigarettes hidden beneath his jacket into the country. 

Her teeth were chattering, and she lay back beneath her blankets.

There was a hidden locker beneath the fireplace, but it was capable of being seen by any detective agency.

He’s so self-centred that he acts like everybody else is beneath him.

Beneath is more common when we talk about the ground or surface directly under the feet:

They could feel the tremor because the ground beneath their feet was moving.

 

More examples:

She went beneath the covers trying to get warm.

People who talk of gender equality often consider women as beneath them.

He was isolated and made to do demeaning tasks well beneath his abilities.

He accepted every assignment that came his way, never considering any job to be beneath him.

He refused to work for her as he found the offer to be beneath his status.

To raise a family and make a living, he accepted even lowpaying jobs he would consider beneath him at home.

When we talk about someone’s actions or decisions, we use ‘beneath’ to refer to the true emotions that a person is hiding:

Beneath his rugged exterior there was a soft-hearted and loving father.

 Be careful! Beneath is not used with numbers:

They bought this old car for just beneath 2000 dollars.         

They bought this old car for just under 2000 dollars.             

 

Under = below (something covering or protecting); we use under to say that one thing is at a lower level than another, and that the other thing is directly above it. In most situations, we can prefer under to any of them. So, under is the default choice. If you are ever unsure which one to use, choose under.

Notice that when it comes to making a choice between below and under, under is more frequently used to refer to three-dimensional objects:

The cat hid under the bed.

The doctor put the thermometer under my tongue.

He stood under a tree (= below its branches) to take shelter from the hot sun.

He put the one dollar bill under the plate and turned around to find the waiter in his face.

Mr. Wilson held an umbrella under his arm (= between his upper arm and the side of his body).

On hearing the news about avalanche on television, Jane jumped out from under the covers.

Janet scrubbed a bowl and dunked it under the hot water.

More examples:

Emily was under the covers now to protect herself from the bitterly cold.

The beggar jumped out from under the covers and grabbed the coins thrown at by a passer-by.

Sharon had hidden the phone under her pillow.

Jane put her signature to the agreement under her picture.

Wow! There’s something sparkling under the water.

She was wearing a white tank top under her coat.

Under his arm, he carried a blue umbrella.

The wooden overbridge collapsed under the weight of the swelling crowd.

The school will be under new administration starting in April.

 

Below = at a lower level or layer than; lower in grade or rank than; extending underneath. We normally use it to refer to one thing being at a much lower level than another. We prefer below to under to say the level of something on a flat plane. For example, if we’re talking about two articles that hang on a wall, we can say that one is below the other. We normally use below for things of a similar grouping:

She hung the silver artefact below the gold one.

Having read the document carefully, he signed below the dotted line.

We can also refer below to identify someone of a lower rank or with less power than someone else:

UK ranks below Jamaica, Latvia and Ghana for press freedom – global study

Like beneath, below can refer to people or things that are not worthy in some way or of a lower social ranking:

Though she is in love with Freddie, she doesn’t seem to be marrying below her family.

More examples:

No one under the age of eighteen years shall be permitted to vote in any election in the US. (To refer to age)

Temperatures in Alberta’s Columbia Icefields fell to 10 below zero last week.

She lives in the apartment below mine. (in or to a lower position especially in the same building, hill, part of the body etc.)

He filled out his son’s admission form and signed it below the dotted line.

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