Could vs. was/were able to vs. managed to

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We use ‘could’, ‘was/were able to and ‘manage to’ (the past form) to talk about ability in the past: ‘she could finish the exam faster than anyone else’; ‘he wasn’t able to answer the police officer’s queries’; ‘he managed to finish the work on time’, etc. We use was/were able to (= had the ability to) and managed to (= succeeded in doing something difficult) when we talk about achieving something on a specific occasion in the past. In contrast, we usually don’t use could when we’re talking about ability at a specific moment in the past.

He was able to push his way through the crowd to reach the dais.             

He managed to push his way through the crowd to reach the dais.            

He could push his way through the crowd to reach the dais.                      

 

Could = We usually use could or couldn’t to talk about general abilities in the past: ‘She could speak Japanese before she started school’; he couldn’t drive until he was thirty’; ‘when I lived next to the Nitehawk, I could go to cinema every day’.

Example sentences of could

He couldn’t touch the ceiling. It’s too high.

lot of them couldn’t survive.

Isabella couldn’t finish her project last night.

I’m sure Liam could find out for you.

There’s no way you could reach the station by yourself.

Nobody could tell my clothes were dirty.

When he was young, he could easily get through this window.

Be careful!

Don’t use could to talk about single events that happened in the past.

could buy a wonderful watch on his birthday.           

was able to/managed to buy a wonderful watch on his birthday. (right)

She could surprise Father yesterday.                         

She was able to surprise Father yesterday.                

However, with verbs of the senses (touch, seesmelltastehear, etc.) and mental processes (believethinkunderstand, remember, etc.), we can use could:

The food served last night was awful. I could taste nothing but salt.

The officer came and asked for my identity, but I couldn’t see his name tag.

 

Notice that we also use could to talk about ability in the present, but in different context. If we say that someone could do something, we mean that they have the ability to do it, but they don’t necessarily do it: the governments could do much more to tackle the pandemic.
More example sentences of could

All that one could do at this point is stay back home and pray for others.

He couldn’t handle the situation all by himself, and called others to help him out.

Several make-shift hospitals were built so that the injured could get treatment.

Grandmother was stunned by the sheer volume of sound that two high volume speakers could make.

My brother and I wanted to sign up for the class so that we could take it together for sharing family car.

We could see nothing except for the dust as the truck disappeared just as quickly.

 

Was/were able to = When we talk about past ability, we use ‘could’ or ‘was/were able to’ to tell an ability that existed in the past for a long time, but no longer exists now: ‘when she was ten, she was able to speak French fluently’.

Example sentences of was/were able to

Only one person was able to clear the interview.

After several weeks in hospital, she was able to return to work.

The company was able to pay their employees’ wages after lockdown.

Williams would never be able to afford such a big house.

The vacation was relaxing and she was able to read a lot.

The police weren’t able to catch the speeding truck.

 

More example sentences of was/were able to

We were able to/managed to drive 800 miles in that old car in just a couple of days.

When the government adds in council tax and other bills, we wouldn’t be able to afford that.

 The year 2020 has really been a hard year and we would have never been able to afford to pay for it.

People who have been displaced are worried they might not be able to afford to return to their homeland.

I hope you will be able to take a few moments to read the manual and follow the instructions.

It is unclear yet if any of the athletes will be able to compete at the international level.

It seems just wonderful to be able to write anything you want and post it on the internet.

Liam has just started to be able to walk but will never have full mobility again.

 

Manage to = When we talk about doing something difficult, especially after trying hard, we use  ‘manage to’: ‘managed to get a travel pass’; ‘managed to see the President’;  ‘managed to get into that crowded tram’.

Example sentences of manage to 

How did you manage to persuade him?

Did you manage to get any drinks?

Atlanta United managed one goal in the last ten minutes. 

only just managed to arrive at the airport on time.

The patrolling squad had somehow managed to survive the terror attack.

Be Careful!
Use a to-infinitive, not an –ing form, after manage. ‘How did you manage persuading him?  ( )  

In written English, we often use ‘succeed in doing something’ rather than ‘manage to do something’ because it sounds more formal: ‘At a time of pandemic, Prime Minister succeeded in restoring hope’.

More example sentences of manage to 

The prisoners managed to escape from jail.

The burglar managed to break into our office downtown and stole cash.

They had been working on it for weeks but they didn’t manage to finish it on time.

They managed to get a really good price on the bungalow.

I managed to persuade Liam to volunteer for community service.

She studied for months but didn’t manage to pass the exam.

Able vs. Capable

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The word able means ‘having the ability to perform a given task.’ Usually, we use the adjective ‘able’ with infinitive ‘to’ to mean having the power, skill, means, or opportunity to do something: ‘he’s an able mechanic’; ‘she was able to swim at the age of six’; ‘he would never be able to afford such a luxury car.’

The word capable means ‘having adequate capacity to do or to make’ or ‘having adequate capacity to receive an action’: ‘a highly capable man’; ‘the child looked eager and capable’; ‘do you think Liam is capable of lifting 100 pounds?’

The major difference between able and capable is ‘able’ has a broader meaning in one’s ability; while ‘capable’ shows one’s ability in a more specialized aspect. Secondly, generally we use ‘able’ to describe current things someone can do, while we use ‘capable’ to talk about their future potential. However, this difference is not a strict rule; it’s just a general trend.

This technology has the ability to enhance daily living from appliances to mobile devices and computers. (it can currently do this)

This technology has the capability to end world diseases. (it has the possibility of doing this in the future)

Example sentences of able

He was able to break free and punch one of the robbers.

He’s able to sing this song perfectly after hearing it only once.

She wondered if they would be able to qualify for World Test Championship.

In these times of pandemic, we know we wouldn’t be able to afford such taxes.

On my vacation, I was able to read a lot that will help me at work.

They will be able to travel on one of the company’s several ships.

William has just started to be able to walk but will never have full mobility again.

It is not known if any of the athletes will be able to compete at the international level.

Hot Dog was able to hear Jughead through the speaker on the phone.

More example sentences of able

I hope you will be able to take a few moments to introspect as to what you want out of life.

He may not have been able to afford to live in such magnificent houses but he befriended the people who could.

She has been learning the martial art since she was eight and now is able to break a concrete block with her bare hands.

But this year, they won’t be able to go door-to-door to register voters due to social distancing guidelines.

This year had been a really hard year and I would have never been able to afford to pay for it.

It has been ages since I saw this movie on TV and have yet to be able to find it in a video store.

Example sentences of capable

You can leave the team’s fortunes in the capable hands of Timothy Green.

All credit to Warrington, they played well and they are a very capable team.

Although he was technically quite capable, the job became more difficult for him.

He was a very capable mechanic and able to fix any new car that comes into the shop.

Teams of highly trained and capable engineers were recruited by the IT department.

He proved a capable administrator and had no hesitation in taking the tough decisions.

The movie is in the capable directorial hands of George Lucas and also stars Carrie Fisher.

The maid is extremely capable and cooks, cleans and does all household chores.

More example sentences of capable

The Chief Justice, a very nice and capable young man, agreed that the whole story was made up.

He was in fact a highly capable teacher and so was well able to achieve celebrity status.

She feels better and more capable, and more attractive now than she has ever felt in life.

This team of doctors is definitely capable but we will have to wait and see what happens.

All in all, he proved a capable administrator, handling all day to day affairs with aplomb.

Notice that the opposite of able is unable, and the opposite of capable is incapable.
Capable of doing something: Having the ability, fitness, or quality necessary to do or achieve a specified thing.

She’s capable of becoming a successful actor.

She’s quite capable of taking care of the children.

The car is capable of running 500 miles non-stop.

Some players are failing to achieve the results of which they are capable.

They’ve proved capable in the past of coming from behind and they’ve handled the heat.

Manchester United finally showed how capable they were of springing from defence into attack.

They all felt they were a good side but not in their wildest dreams did they think they were capable of winning the match.

What is good is that Brazil now strive not just to win but to play the game of which they know themselves capable.

Notice that when you use a past tense, you mean that someone has actually done something: They were able to cut costs without cutting staff.

Sure vs. Surely

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Sure means to be confident that you know something or that something is true or correct. Sure is an adjective and it modifies nouns or pronouns. Surely means to express a degree of certainty. Surely is an adverb and it modifies verbs, adjectives, or adverbs: It is a sure thing, it is surely humid inside. In the first sentence, ‘thing’ is a noun and an adjective ‘sure’ modifies it. In second sentence, ‘humid’ is an adjective and an adverb ‘surely’ modifies it.

The word sure means that you are certain; without any doubt or it is an affirmation.

 

Example sentences of sure

That’s Jessica’s ex-husband.’ ‘Are you sure?’

‘What time does the movie start?’ ‘I’m not sure.’

Are you sure that you know how to solve this tricky math problem?

My brother, I felt sure, had not met her before.

I’m not sure if I’ll be reaching the airport in time.

He wasn’t even sure of his car’s plate number. 

‘That’s the car that met with an accident last night.’ ‘Are you quite sure about that?

In writing, we often prefer to use certain rather than sure, because it sounds more formal.

 

 More example sentences of sure

‘What’s wrong with her?’ ‘I’m not really sure.

I’m sure (that) I left my wallet on the cab.

I’m not 100 percent sure how to tell her husband’s death.

I feel absolutely sure (that) Jessica has made the right decision about her career.

It now seems sure (that) the election rallies have resulted in the spread of the disease.

Amelia isn’t sure whether/if she’ll be able to come to the party or not.

We arrived at the station early to be sure of getting a good seat.

There is only one sure way of finding out the truth.

She is sure to do well on the concert.

They are sure that their dog was stolen from their house.

May I borrow your lawn mower? Sure!

 

Also notice that when ‘sure’ is used as an adverb, it has the same meaning as ‘surely.’ However, we can only use it in informal situations: This pudding sure is good!

 

When we use surely, we are hoping that the listener will agree with us.

 

Example sentences of surely

Emma will surely attend the wedding despite all differences with Jack.  (I want you to agree with me that Emma will attend the wedding)

Surely you will be fined if you go out without wearing mask. (I want you to agree with me that it is against the advisory of government)

The Prime Minister will surely be able to assure the House of that incident.

Were that true, ground operations should surely be averted to avoid a full-fledged war.

Her tremendous form must surely have surprised even his biggest critics.

 

 More example sentences of surely

It’s surely quicker if you have a bike.

It will surely be cloudy today.

Surely, you are capable of getting rid of this problem. (This is not difficult to do so)

 If that is not the case, then digging into his past is surely detectives’ job.

If Father has not made any will, then surely the house goes automatically to all siblings equally.

We also use surely, especially in negative question forms, to show surprise:

Surely she’s not going to resign after her breakup with her employer. (I am surprised that she’s going to resign after break up with her employer)

Surely you won’t be interested in a job like that? (I am surprised that you will be interested in a job like that)

Until vs. Till vs. By

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Many people wrongly believe that till is an abbreviation of until and say it should not be used. Traditionally, till is the older and original form, coming from Old Norse til into northern Old English. The form until is a later compound of Old Norse und (meaning as far as) + till, and originated in northern Middle English:

She’ll be in the store until 9 pm. She’ll be in the store till 9 pm.

Is second sentence is wrong? No, until and till are both real and correct words and mean the same thing. They denote how long something will happen or when it will start or end. Actually, till is the older of the two words and you can still use till in formal writing without being wrong: The neighbours quarrelled from noon till night. (sometimes the single syllable of till is better for the rhythm of your sentence than the two syllables of until; here, till is informal, even spoken English)

Until denotes when something will happen, begin, or end: she has to work in the store until 9 pm; you have to hand in the report any day until Saturday; the market is open until 8 pm.

 

Notice that till is not a contraction of until — it’s actually older than until — hence, it should not be written with an apostrophe. ’Til shows up every so often, but many major usage dictionaries and style guides regard it an error, so it’s best to avoid it.

 

In contrast, as a preposition of time, by denotes ‘before or not later than a particular time’; by 11:30 am; arrive by Monday; I’ll be done by twelve o’clock.

Let’s take a look at how and when we should use each of these prepositions:

 

I’ve got to do this report until Thursday. (begin to do this report now, continue to do it until Thursday, then stop doing it regardless of whether it is finished or not)

 

I’ve got to do this report by Thursday. (make sure that on Thursday the report is done)

 

We can finish this project until Monday. (Now do this project on Monday: we’ll stop even if we haven’t finished)

We can finish this project by Monday. (Now do this project and finish it on Monday (it will be finished)

The train can’t leave until 5 am. (it is impossible for train to leave before 5 am)

The train must leave by 5 am. (train needs to leave any time before 5 am. If it leaves after 5 am, then there will be some sort of problem or trouble)

Therefore, until refers to all the time between now and the end of something while by only refers to the deadline.

 

Use until when you refer to the period of time before a deadline.
Use by when you refer to a deadline.

 

More example sentences of until

I’ll look after the children until you come back. (as conjunction)

They have to wait until the train arrives.

Mother won’t start cooking until she comes home. (a negative construction (with not) in the main clause)

She can’t mend the clothes until the sewing machine is fixed.

She can’t mend the clothes until the sewing machine has been fixed. (also have + past participle and had + past participle)

She didn’t serve the dessert until we had finished eating.

They’ll wait until Tuesday. (as preposition)

She’ll be at the airport until seven o’clock.

She partied with her friends until it got dark.

We’re not allowed to go out until we finish our dinner. (or until we have finished our dinner)

We didn’t know he was a foreigner until he spoke.

We travelled together until Boston.

He was coughing and stayed awake until midnight.

 

Notice that with until we usually use the words can, will, or any present tense verbs.

 

More example sentences of by

The project needs to be ready by next week. (before or not later than a particular time; Indicating a deadline or the end of a particular time period)

By the end of this month the organisers had sold all tickets. 

By the time she got home she was tired.

I’ll be home by 11, I promise.

By 8.00, most of the guests had gone.

Please try to have this project done by Sunday.

You had promised to be back by seven o’clock.

The documents must be in by the 15th to be accepted.

By the time I got to the airport the entry had already been barred.

 

Notice that we usually use the words have/had, need, or must when we use by.

 

Consist of, comprise, be composed of, constitute, make up/be made up of, include

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The expressions such as consist (of), comprise (be comprised of), composed of, constitute, make up (be made up of), include, etc. describe the relationship of parts to the whole, or whole to parts. We sometimes use them interchangeably but not in all cases. Let’s look at the usages of each word, with attention to active and passive voices.

 

Consist of = When we want to talk about the whole and then all of its parts, we commonly use consist of: ‘North America consists of three countries: the USA, Canada, and Mexico’, ‘the club consists of members from all across the world’, ‘the crew consists of twenty men’, ‘the class consists of students from all over the world’, the trip of UN Secretary-General consists of several countries in Asia’, etc.

More example sentences of consist of

She got the termination letter which largely consisted of several allegations.

The proposed overbridge will consist of several overpasses and underpasses.

These evidences consisted not of videos, as you say, but of several audio clips, too.

The exhibition consists of a wide range of products aimed at the defence industry.

The magazine includes a section at the back consisting of a telephone directory.

The menu usually consisted of two or three dishes which were served in the earthen pot.

The ICU health care team consists of physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, dieticians and other professionals.

Note that ‘consist of’ is more informal than ‘comprise’.
Be aware! Never use ‘consist of’ in the passive, so don’t say something is consisted of something.

The Group of Seven consists of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.                                        

The Group of Seven is consisted of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.                  

 

Comprise = Consist of; be made up of. The verb ‘comprise’ has an edge over the verb ‘consist of,’ if you stick to the sense that the whole comprises the parts, and use the active rather than the passive: ‘The newly formed committee will comprise seven members’, ‘the trust comprises four trustees including one chairman’, ‘the studio spans several city blocks, comprising seventeen buildings’, etc.

More example sentences of comprise

The collection comprises 51 classic movies.

The team comprises mostly players from the Commonwealth nations.

Consumer spending by state government now comprises 70% of GDP.

The audience comprising former players, bureaucrats and senior citizens were an enthusiastic lot.

Ad-supported cable programs now comprise more than 80 percent of all U.S. television households.

The accommodation provided by the company comprises two bedrooms, dining room, kitchen, bathroom, and rear garden.

Note that sometimes we use comprise in the passive with of, though debatable:

The whole + is comprised of + all its parts (passive)

The course is comprised of fifteen core modules.

The committee is comprised of well-known historians.

The class is comprised mainly of Mexican and Canadian students.

Note that this passive use has been on the rise, may be due to its similarity to ‘be composed of’. However, it is somewhat controversial and not liked by most traditional grammarians.
Be aware!  Like ‘consist of’, ‘comprise’ is not followed by of unless it is used in the passive: ‘the band consists of two guitarists, a bassist, and a drummer’ and NOT ‘the band comprises of two guitarists, a bassist, and a drummer’.

The University comprises of several Departments.              

The University comprises several Departments.                  

Be composed of = The things that something is composed of are its parts or members. The separate things that compose something are the parts or members that form it: ‘the cake is composed of flour and eggs’, ‘a council composed of leaders of the rival factions’,  ‘this vanity table should be composed of three parts’, etc.
Note that there’s no difference in meaning between ‘consist of‘ and ‘be composed of‘; we use both to describe what something is formed or made of.
More example sentences of be composed of

This force would be composed of troops from NATO members.

All matter is found to be composed of atoms and molecules.

The current Roberts Court is supposed to be composed of more democrats.

It has been found that tears to be composed of negatively charged ions.

His idea was a smaller army to be composed of better-trained and better-equipped soldiers.

The committee will be composed of the permanent representatives of the participating States.

The newly-formed force would be composed of all combat types, including two or three carriers, transports and train vessels.

A PowerPoint Presentation can be composed of audio, video, images, text, and other media types.

 

Constitute = Be (a part) of a whole; combine to form (a whole): ‘women constitute the majority of the workforce’, here’s a collection of old photographs that constitutes the ‘family album, etc.

More example sentences of constitute

There were enough allegations to constitute a lawsuit.

The Barony of Erris constitutes such a large part of Mayo.

Muslims in Burma constitute at least 4 per cent of the country’s entire population.

This termination of contract, from the legal point of view, constitutes a breach of contract.

The pedestrians in the city constitute the highest number of victims of road accidents.

These so-called elite groups constituted a very small proportion of the total population.

This combined migratory population constituted more than 21.8 percent of Lebanon’s population.

The data presented by the WHO constitute only a very modest beginning toward meeting the challenge.

 

Make up = (of parts) compose or constitute a whole: ‘women make up 56 per cent of the workforce’,

We also use ‘make up’ in this way: with Liam and Emma we made up a foursome for badminton.

More example sentences of make up

Milk, dairy, eggs, meat, fish and poultry make up your three-year-old child’s diet.

As of 2010, there were about 14 million Jews around the world, making up 0.2% of the global population.

American shoppers make up the largest percentage of foreign buyers.

 

Note that ‘make up’ is a bit less formal than ‘constitute’, but ‘compose’ is rather formal and perhaps rather old-fashioned.

 

Be made up of = When the subject refers to the whole, make up can also be used in the passive with of: ‘the novel is made up of twelve short stories’, ‘the crew is made up of five women and three men’.

 

Include = Comprise or contain as part of a whole; make part of a whole or set. When we talk about the whole and then only some of the parts, we use include: ‘the class includes many students from Singapore and Taiwan’, the trip includes a one-night stay at Hawaii’, ‘the price includes all meals and bed’, etc.

More example sentences of include

She donated a few articles of furniture including an almirah, a chair and a vanity table.

The wine was quite good, and it was included in the price of the dinner.

On our trip to Maryland, we were allowed only breakfast and dinner because lunch was not included in the price.

Food and drinks are included in the entry price so it’s a bit of a bargain.

The book also includes some hints for beginners at the back.

Ending a Sentence with a Preposition

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Ending a sentence with a preposition has long been frowned upon by traditional readers and is still considered grammatically incorrect. However, it’s not technically an error. It’s perfectly OK to end a sentence with a preposition such as with, for, of, and to in the English language. ‘Where did you get this shirt from?’ and ‘This is the novel I told you about!’ sound much more natural than ‘From where did you get this shirt?’ or ‘This is the novel about which I told you!’

So, if the alternatives tend to create confusion or sound unnatural, it’s totally permissible to end your sentence with a preposition especially in casual or informal writing. Most grammar and usage guides had come to the conclusion that there was really nothing wrong with ending a sentence with a preposition (also known as preposition stranding, or sentence-terminal prepositions). For example:

Who were you speaking to?  (informal and more casual)

To whom were you speaking? (formal, but not in use in conversation)

Whom were you speaking to? (breaks out the rule of ending a sentence with a preposition, a little formal)

 

Some example sentences

Who (whom) were you sitting with?

I don’t understand what she’s talking about!

Where does she come from?

Who is she going out with?

Which movie was she cast in? (casual)

In which movie was she cast? (formal)

Where did this box come from?

 

Many English idioms and colloquial expressions end in prepositions. When you use the expressions at the end of a sentence, the sentence ultimately ends in a preposition. For example:

She gave up the job when her first child came along.

Thanks for stopping by!

The shop is all set up.

Will you calm down?

 

Is it necessary to move the preposition?

Though in informal setting, it doesn’t require you to move the preposition away from the end of the sentence, it could be your choice in formal writing. Phrases that sound natural in informal English may feel odd or awkward in formal essay, article or conversation. Here are some tips for changing sentences in formal writing.

Today is the big day; who his only daughter is getting married off to? (casual)

Today is the big day; to whom his only daughter is getting married off? (formal)

She’s the girl I’m going to work with. (informal)

She’s the girl with whom I’m going to work. (formal)

Mughal era is the period I’m focusing on. (informal)

Mughal era is the period on which I’m focusing. (formal)

Palmistry is a subject Tom knows nothing about. (informal)

Palmistry is a subject about which Tom knows nothing. (formal)

 

Some more example sentences

What should I put the honey in?

They need to decide which side they’re on.

Who is this coffee for?

There is nothing in her life to be grateful for.

There’s nothing to be afraid of.

She wished she had someone to confide in.

What did you step on?

The meeting was called off.

The matter has been dealt with.

The maid knows where your shoes are at. (‘at’ is unnecessary; the sentence is okay with ‘The maid knows where your shoes are.)

Mother doesn’t know where she’s going to. (‘to’ is unnecessary)

Fewer vs. Less

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Fewer and less both represent the opposite of the comparative adjective more. However, the main difference between fewer and less is to deduce whether fewer and less will be working with a countable or uncountable noun in the given sentence.

People often confuse when to use less and when to use fewer in a sentence. Here are some tips on how to use fewer and less correctly though there are some exceptions to the general rules about their usage.

 

Use fewer if you are referring to people or things in the plural (e.g. applesbooks, cookiesboys, students). For example:

People these days are buying fewer gold bars. (gold bars countable)

Fewer entrepreneurs have invested in real estate lately. (entrepreneurs countable)

 

Use less when you are referring to something that can’t be counted or doesn’t have a plural (e.g. sugar, moneymilktimemusicrain). For example:

People these days are buying less gold jewellery. (jewellery uncountable)

In these precarious times, people are looking to spend less money. (money uncountable)

 

Some example sentences of fewer

If fewer people used polythene waste on hills, there would be less of a threat to the ecosystem.

Fewer people smoke these days than used to.

We received far fewer lawsuits of divorce this year than expected.

Fewer than 3,500 tigers are left in the wild today.

Sam made fewer grammatical mistakes than sally (did) in essay competition.

Your guitar left me with less space in the car.

 

Some example sentences of less

Lisa now wants to spend less time with her in-laws. (determiner – a smaller amount of; not as much)

Ironically, when she was in hospital, she listened to less music.

Less is also used with numbers when they are on their own and with expressions of measurement or time, e.g.:

The baby is born weighing less than 5 pounds.

Their relationship lasted less than six months.

Brooklyn is less than 8 miles away from Madison Square Garden Center.

The child mortality is now less of a problem than it used to be. (pronoun – a smaller amount or quantity of something)

They covered that much distance in less than an hour.

Pitcairn Island has less than 50 inhabitants; most reside near the village of Adamstown.

‘Avoid less important question in studies’ (adverb – to a smaller extent; not so much)

Emma has less than fifty dollars left on her trip to Wagner Vineyards. (though we can count money, it is common sense to think of money as a bulk quantity rather than an aggregate of currency units. So, we use less rather than fewer.

Emma has fewer than fifty dollars left on her trip to Wagner Vineyards. (not wrong but would seem awkward and unexpected to the listener)

 

Now that it is clear to you as to where to use fewer and where to use less, you are less likely to make mistakes in the usage of these words. However, you have to be more careful in formal writing. In informal writing or speech, it all depends on which one sounds better to your ear.

Rise vs. Arise

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Rise (as a verb, intransitive) means to move, or appear to move, physically upwards relative to the ground; to move upwards; to grow upward; to assume an upright position; to leave one’s bed; to get up; to be resurrected; to terminate an official sitting; to adjourn.

Some example sentences of rise

She reluctantly rose from the chair.

She watched the sun rise behind the mountains.

This white spruce rises to a height of twenty feet.

Put the dough in a warm place and wait for it to rise.

As the child looked on and watched nervously, the balloon rose gently (up) into the air.

She knew that might get a rise out of him. (an angry reaction)

 

Rise (as a noun): the process of or an action or instance of moving upwards or becoming greater:

There has been a sharp rise of gold prices since last week.

A considerable rise in his pay rate; a raise (US)

The rise of nationalism in Europe

The rise of female empowerment

The low rise pants aren’t always her best choice.

 

 

Arise (as a verb) means to come up from a lower to a higher position; to come into action; to spring up; being, or notice; to become operative; sensible; or visible; to begin to act a part; to present itself; to come up from one’s bed or place of repose; to get up.

 

Some example sentences of arise

She arose early in the morning for her morning prayers.

The air got colder as a dark thick cloud arose above the hills.

He is not always willing to walk his talk and won’t be ready when an opportunity arose.

A problem has arisen with my ration card.

 

To distinguish the verb ‘rise’ from the verb ‘arise’, you can tell the difference that the ‘rise’ is an intransitive verb, i.e. it’s not followed by a direct object.

For example:

The sun rises in the East.

Rise can also be used to show that something abstract is going up, as for example in

Gold prices are rising again.

Arise means ‘happen’ or ‘occur’. We use it with abstract nouns (opportunity, problem, love, joy, excitement, etc.). The three forms of arise are arise, arose, arisen. It is used in formal contexts. Both ‘rise’ and ‘arise’ are irregular verbs:

The problem arose for organizers when Justin didn’t turn up for the concert.

 

Now the question arises when we use ‘rise’ and when ‘arise’. The answer is simple — we use the verb ‘rise’ when we mean to physically move in an upward direction. On the other hand, we use ‘arise’ when we want to express the sense of something coming into being, originating or happening. That SOMETHING may be a problem, a difficulty, a situation, a necessity, an occasion, etc. Hence, ‘arise’ is a verb with an abstract meaning showing that something is happening and even people are aware of it happening:

When something rises, it moves upwards.

A murmuration of birds rose from the tree-tops.

The farmer community rose (up) against the government demanding the repeal of new agriculture laws.

She promised to help her ex-husband if the occasion arose.

Now the question has arisen whether the government of the state can be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Epidemic vs. Pandemic

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The difference between the two –demics, according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, is that an epidemic is “an outbreak of disease that spreads quickly and affects many individuals at the same time.” On the other hand, a pandemic is a type of epidemic (one with greater range and coverage), an outbreak of a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects an exceptionally high proportion of the population.

 

Epidemic = may be traced to the Greek epidḗmios (“within the country, among the people, prevalent (of a disease)”), may carry broader meanings, such as “excessively prevalent,” “contagious,” or “characterized by very widespread growth or extent” (often used in a non-medical sense):

 

Mother remembered hearing about the plague epidemic which had struck the town when she was 10.

The ship’s captain came down with the influenza and an onboard epidemic occurred.

An epidemic of SARS affected 26 countries and resulted in more than 8000 cases in 2003.

Haiti’s 2010 cholera epidemic went on for nearly a decade and killed nearly 10,000 people.

Sleepy Joe Biden was in charge of the H1N1 Swine Flu epidemic which killed thousands of people: Donald J. Trump 

Some more examples
After epidemics such as plague, cholera, smallpox and syphilis infected their first patients, they spread widely via means of transport.

A cholera outbreak/epidemic can occur in both endemic countries and in countries where cholera does not regularly occur.

Foot and Mouth disease is one which affects livestock such as cows and sheep, and is incredibly infectious.

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, better known by its acronym, SARS, tore through the city in 2003, leaving 299 people dead.

Before the novel coronavirus, many momentous epidemics and pandemics altered the course of human history, killing large percentages of the global population.

 

Pandemic = is less often encountered in a broad and non-medical sense, but does have additional senses, including “affecting the majority of people in a country or a number of countries”, “found in most parts of the world and in varied ecological conditions,” and “of or relating to common or sensual love” (in this last sense the word is usually capitalized). Pandemic comes from the Greek pandēmos (“of all the people”), which itself is from pan- (“all, every”) and dēmos (“people”):

 

Unlike an epidemic, a pandemic affects people worldwide.

The main thing about a pandemic like the novel coronavirus is that it doesn’t discriminate.

The most deadly pandemic in history was the Spanish flu of 1918.

The World Health Organization has declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic.

The epidemic had rapidly become a pandemic, making its way around the world.

COVID-19 began as an epidemic in China, before making its way around the world in a matter of months and becoming a pandemic.

Epidemics don’t always become pandemics, and it’s not always a fast or clear transition.

Some more examples
The COVID-19 pandemic is distinct from previous global outbreaks.

The last pandemic declared was in 2009 during the outbreak of H1N1 flu, commonly known as the swine flu.

The first cholera pandemic occurred in 1817 and originated in Russia, where 1 million people died.

In 1918, the Spanish flu caused a global pandemic, spreading rapidly and killing at least 50 million people, making it the deadliest pandemic in modern history.

Should schools be closed for a few weeks, as a way of short-circuiting the pandemic?

Europe has now become the epicenter of the pandemic, with more reported cases and deaths than the rest of the world combined, apart from China.

President just declared the coronavirus pandemic a national emergency.  

Even if countries vaccinate their citizens, they will not remain immune to the pandemic shock.

I was disgusted ____ his behaviour. 

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Disgusted (at/by/with)

Disgusted (adj) means ‘feeling or showing disgust; disturbed physically or mentally by something distasteful; cause (someone) to feel revulsion or strong disapproval; severely disappointed at someone or something:
We were disgusted at her incessant lying and cheating on her husband.
I am totally disgusted at you for not feeding our dog as punishment.
She is totally disgusted by what has happened.
There is a whole world of sycophantic and biased television that I am disgusted by.
We were absolutely disgusted with the way both teams behaved just after the match ended.

Disgusted at:

The Vice-Chancellor was disgusted at/with the way the police treated the students.

Mr and Mrs Franklin said they were disgusted at the situation which had left them speechless.

I was disgusted at the way the man seemed to be more concerned about his car than the victim of the crash.

Disgusted by:

They were disgusted by the violence in the campus.

Mother was disgusted by Joe’s failure.

Parents were disgusted by the glorification of violence in the movie.

He was so shabbily dressed at the party. I tried hard not to be disgusted by his appearance.

He’s disgusted by all the promises political leaders made at the time of elections.

Most locals were disgusted by the way the protesters had blocked the roads.

Disgusted with:

I am disgusted with you.

She’s totally disgusted with Bob’s behaviour.

He was disgusted with the Jury’s decision.

Jane was disgusted with the Idea of travelling by car instead of train.

My wife was really disgusted with this idiot native who had just spat on our car.

The minister was disgusted with the way anti-CAA protesters had been behaving.

Father didn’t say one word to Paul after he got bad grades in school because he was absolutely disgusted with him.

Disgusted that:

I’m absolutely disgusted that anyone should be attacked in this manner.

Wilsons were so disgusted that whatever faint chance of their granddaughter’s return is left would disappear forever.

Given all above examples, both prepositions ‘by’ and ‘with’ can fill the blank in the opening sentence while ‘at’ is less likely to work.

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