Grammar Rules

The adverbials hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are often used to emphasise that one event quickly followed another. If hardly, scarcely, barely and no sooner are in the initial position, the subject and auxiliary are inverted.  We usually use the past perfect tense for the verb describing the...
Have to and have got to mean almost the same and imply ‘to be obliged or find it necessary to do the specified thing.’ Have got to is more common in informal situations. Have (got) to comes before the main verb and it is often contracted in speaking:   I have...
Generally we use both ‘it is I’ and ‘it’s me’ to introduce ourselves. The only difference is that ‘it’s me’ is more common and casual whereas ‘it is I’ is just formal, and will sound outdated. We are hearing ‘it’s me’ more often in our day-to-day conversations. Some people...
When two subjects are contrasted in a sentence, the verb agrees with the affirmative subject: He, not I, am responsible for this terrible mess.         ✗ He, not I, is responsible for this terrible mess.            √   She, not you, always complain about the stench coming from the drains.   ✗ She, not you, always complains...
Begin and start both refer to the beginning of an action which is going to be performed. Begin is an irregular verb (Present begin, Past began & Participle begun) whereas start is regular and has its past and participle started. Most etymologists and grammar books suggest that begin and start...
(A) off (B) out (C) apart (D) away   Fall out: ‘have an argument, to argue with someone and stop being friendly with them’: After a long standoff, Emily had fallen out with her family. Sales of these products have fallen off in recent months.   Fall off: ‘to become detached and drop to the ground, to drop...
What is an Adverb? An adverb is a word that modifies or describes a verb (they played nicely), an adjective (very good), another adverb (treat so badly), or even a whole sentence (Unfortunately, they lost the game). Adverbs often end in -ly, but some appear to be exactly the same...
‘Underneath, beneath, under and below’ are all similar in meaning and can mean ‘in a lower place or position; covered by something else.’ The difference between them is very subtle. So, it would be helpful to know what each word signifies: Underneath = below the surface of; directly beneath; situated...
Finally, at last, lastly and in the end all these adverbs denote ‘after a period of time’. However, we use them in different ways. There can be subtle differences, in certain contexts where one sounds better than another. A lot depends on the context.     Finally = we use finally to...
Due to = caused by or ascribable to; because of; owing to. Owing to = because of or on account of.   We use the expressions ‘due to’ and ‘owing to’ by presenting the reason for something. Both ‘due to’ and ‘owing to’ are adverbial.   Many modern English writers have widely used ‘due...

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